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Table 3 Levels of perfluoroalkylated substances and elements in amniotic fluid

From: Autism spectrum disorders, endocrine disrupting compounds, and heavy metals in amniotic fluid: a case-control study

  ASD cases Control  
n Median Min-max n Median Min-max p FDR (qvalue)
PFAS (ng/mL)
 PFOS 37 0.61 0.61–2.98 51 1.44 0.61–4.22 0.015 0.189
 PFOSA 37 0.60 0.60–13.30 51 0.60 0.60–19.00 0.152 0.638
 PFOA 37 0.29 0.10–0.78 51 0.32 0.10–1.86 0.516 0.764
 ∑PFSA 37 1.56 1.56–15.40 51 2.60 1.56–21.70 0.011 0.189
 ∑PFCA 37 1.54 1.35–2.03 51 1.57 1.35–3.11 0.489 0.764
 ∑PFSA+∑PFCA 37 3.26 2.91–17.37 51 4.23 2.91–23.26 0.021 0.189
Elements (μg/L)
 Fe 37 259.00 16.00–778.0 51 270.00 128.00–2575 0.571 0.764
 Cu 37 89.15 45.62–206.10 51 100.40 53.53–223.10 0.189 0.638
 Zn 37 97.90 34.69–754.5 51 102.00 30.90–1216 0.557 0.764
 Se 37 4.43 2.250–7.130 51 4.55 2.980–7.27 0.758 0.861
 I 37 1.88 1.88–94.68 51 1.88 1.88–195.40 0.765 0.861
 Cr 37 0.75 0.16–3.85 51 0.73 0.31–2.21 0.365 0.704
 Mn 37 0.65 0.65–25.89 51 0.65 0.65–5.26 0.826 0.892
 As 37 1.33 1.33–6.19 51 1.33 1.33–4.96 0.328 0.704
 Cd 37 0.02 0.02–1.92 51 0.02 0.02–0.14 0.648 0.795
 Pb 37 0.22 0.22–2.27 51 0.22 0.22–5.30 0.526 0.764
  1. ∑PFSA perfluorosulfonated acids which was the sum of PFOS, PFHpS, PFBS, PFHxS, PFDS, and PFOSA, ∑PFCA perfluorocarboxylated acids which was the sum of PFOA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA, and PFPeA, FDR (qvalue) false discovery rate. The difference between cases and controls was compared using non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Italicized values indicate statistically significant (p < 0.05 and FDR qvalue < 0.25)