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Table 9 Characteristics of Jiamusi sample within age range during clinical assessments

From: Autism prevalence in China is comparable to Western prevalence

Variables n (%) Group 1: CAST ≥ 15 Group 2: 12–14 Group 3: ≤ 11
Completed Not completed Invited and completed Invited but not participated Not invited Invited Not invited
Number   414 (46) 487 (54) 144 (8) 124 (7) 1554 (85) 750 (6) 12,190 (94)
CAST score Median (IQR) 16 (15,17) 16 (15.17) 12 (12, 13) 13 (12, 14) 13 (12, 13) 7 (5,9) 7 (5, 9)
Mean (SD) 16 (2.6) 16 (3.9) 12 (1.8) 12 (2.1) 12 (1.8) 7 (2.4) 6 (2.5)
Age Mean (SD) 8.2 (1.3) 7.8 (1.7) 7.9 (1.5) 7.8 (1.3) 8.0 (1.3) 7.9 (1.1) 8.2 (1.1)
Sex
 Boys   260 (63) 337 (69) 80 (56) 63 (51) 921 (59) 376 (50) 5979 (49)
 Girls   151 (36) 148 (30) 64 (44) 59 (48) 625 (40) 373 (48) 6189 (46)
 Missing   3 (0.7) 2 (0.4) 0 (0) 2 (1.6) 8 (0.5) 1 (0.3) 22 (0.2)
Mother’s age
 ≤ 24   3 (0.7) 2 (0.4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 4 (0.3) 2 (0.3) 27 (0.2)
 25–30   64 (15.5) 84 (17.3) 28 (19.4) 16 (12.9) 237 (15.3) 149 (19.9) 1462 (12.0)
 31–34   215 (51.9) 230 (47.2) 87 (60.4) 61 (49.2) 831 (53.5) 444 (59.2) 6811 (55.9)
 35–40   37 (8.9) 31 (6.4) 10 (6.9) 7 (5.7) 112 (7.2) 50 (6.7) 713 (5.9)
 ≥ 41   0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.0)
 Missing   95 (23.0) 140 (28.8) 19 (13.2) 40 (32.3) 370 (23.8) 105 (14.0) 3175 (26.1)
Father’s age
 ≤ 24   2 (0.5) 3 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 6 (0.4) 1 (0.1) 14 (0.1)
 25–30   32 (7.7) 37 (7.6) 12 (8.3) 12 (9.7) 108 (7.0) 70 (9.3) 532 (4.4)
 31–34   262 (63.3) 280 (57.5) 105 (72.9) 75 (60.5) 937 (60.3) 534 (71.2) 8128 (66.7)
 35–40   50 (12.1) 52 (10.7) 16 (11.1) 12 (9.7) 188 (12.1) 68 (9.1) 1223 (10.0)
 ≥ 41   0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.2)
 Missing   68 (16.4) 115 (23.6) 11 (7.6) 25 (20.2) 315 (20.3) 77 (10.3) 2291 (18.8)
Mother’s education
 Junior high or lower   223 (53.9) 225 (46.2) 97 (67.4) 56 (45.2) 804 (51.7) 496 (66.1) 4583 (37.6)
 High school   133 (32.1) 160 (32.9) 36 (25.0) 44 (35.5) 455 (29.3) 194 (25.9) 4258 (34.9)
 College or university   37 (32.1) 79 (16.2) 4 (2.8) 20 (16.1) 231 (14.9) 48 (6.4) 2997 (24.6)
 Graduate school   6 (1.5) 7 (1.4) 2 (1.4) 1 (0.8) 18 (1.2) 6 (0.8) 217 (1.8)
 Missing   15 (3.6) 16 (3.3) 5 (3.5) 3 (2.4) 46 (3.0) 6 (0.8) 135 (1.1)
Father’s education
 Junior high or lower   220 (53.1) 209 (42.9) 99 (68.8) 51 (41.1) 743 (47.8) 492 (65.6) 4349 (35.7)
 High school   124 (30.0) 152 (31.2) 36 (25.0) 52 (41.9) 506 (32.6) 197 (26.3) 4335 (35.6)
 College or university   47 (11.4) 96 (19.7) 5 (3.5) 17 (13.7) 241 (15.5) 44 (5.9) 3047 (25.0)
 Graduate school   6 (1.5) 10 (2.1) 2 (1.4) 2 (1.6) 20 (1.3) 8 (1.1) 264 (2.2)
 Missing   17 (4.1) 20 (4.1) 2 (1.4) 2 (1.6) 44 (2.8) 9 (1.2) 195 (1.6)
Mother’s occupation
 Public servant hired by the government   15 (3.6) 18 (3.7) 0 (0.0) 4 (3.2) 34 (2.2) 10 (1.3) 363 (3.0)
 Company clerks   19 (4.6) 40 (8.2) 8 (5.6) 10 (8.1) 144 (9.3) 66 (8.8) 1586 (13.0)
 Industry workers   26 (6.3) 44 (9.0) 5 (3.5) 8 (6.5) 134 (8.6) 31 (4.1) 1578 (13.0)
 Self-employed   103 (24.9) 141 (29.0) 32 (22.2) 48 (38.7) 460 (29.6) 188 (25.1) 3735 (30.6)
 Other worker   53 (12.8) 44 (9.0) 26 (18.1) 8 (6.5) 156 (10.0) 82 (10.9) 996 (8.2)
 Student   0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 7 (0.1)
 Farmer   99 (23.9) 80 (16.4) 27 (18.8) 24 (19.4) 270 (17.4) 156 (20.8) 1415 (11.6)
 Unemployed   87 (21.0) 109 (22.4) 46 (31.9) 20 (16.1) 325 (20.9) 215 (28.7) 2355 (19.3)
 Missing   12 (2.9) 11 (2.3) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.6) 31 (2.0) 2 (0.3) 155 (1.3)
Father’s occupation
 Public servant hired by the government   6 (1.5) 23 (4.7) 0 (0.0) 4 (3.2) 51 (3.3) 10 (1.3) 696 (5.7)
 Company clerks   32 (7.7) 38 (7.8) 10 (6.9) 10 (8.1) 124 (8.0) 41 (5.5) 1385 (11.4)
 Industry workers   22 (5.3) 52 (10.7) 8 (5.6) 7 (5.6) 138 (8.9) 29 (3.9) 1386 (11.4)
 Self-employed   103 (24.9) 126 (25.9) 33 (22.9) 41 (33.1) 472 (30.4) 253 (33.7) 4016 (33.0)
 Other worker   99 (23.9) 81 (16.6) 38 (26.4) 26 (21.0) 283 (18.2) 155 (20.7) 2084 (17.1)
 Student   0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 5 (0.0)
 Farmer   97 (23.4) 76 (15.6) 35 (24.3) 20 (16.1) 274 (17.6) 156 (20.8) 1444 (11.9)
 Unemployed   38 (9.2) 70 (14.4) 19 (13.2) 13 (10.5) 163 (10.5) 99 (13.2) 913 (7.5)
 Missing   17 (4.1) 21 (4.3) 1 (0.7) 3 (2.4) 49 (3.2) 7 (0.9) 261 (2.1)
Income
 ≤ 1999   128 (30.9) 141 (29.0) 40 (27.8) 34 (27.4) 346 (22.3) 191 (25.5) 1869 (15.3)
 2000–3999   150 (36.2) 161 (33.1) 49 (34.0) 45 (36.3) 550 (35.4) 311 (41.5) 4035 (33.1)
 4000–5999   62 (15.0) 79 (16.2) 26 (18.1) 23 (18.6) 318 (20.5) 147 (19.6) 3270 (26.8)
 6000–7999   22 (5.3) 26 (5.3) 10 (6.9) 8 (6.5) 121 (7.8) 43 (5.7) 1493 (12.3)
 8000–9999   7 (1.7) 19 (3.9) 1 (0.7) 2 (1.6) 44 (2.8) 17 (2.3) 485 (4.0)
 ≥ 10,000   10 (2.4) 19 (3.9) 3 (2.1) 7 (5.7) 51 (3.3) 7 (0.9) 478 (3.9)
 Missing   35 (8.5) 42 (8.6) 15 (10.4) 5 (4.0) 124 (8.0) 34 (4.5) 560 (4.6)