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Table 7 Characteristics of Shenzhen sample within age range during clinical assessments

From: Autism prevalence in China is comparable to Western prevalence

Variables n (%) Group 1: CAST ≥ 15 Group 2: 12–14 Group 3: ≤ 11
Completed Not completed Invited and completed Invited but not participated Not invited Invited Not invited
Number   796 (67) 391 (33) 70 (3) 53 (2) 2419 (95) 23 (0.1) 17,050 (99.9)
CAST score Median (IQR) 16 (15,17) 16 (15.17) 13 (12, 14) 13 (12, 14) 13 (12, 13) 13 (12, 14) 13 (12, 13)
Mean (SD) 15.5 (3.7) 15.8 (3.0) 12.2 (2.5) 12.6 (1.7) 12.6 (1.6) 12.2 (2.5) 12.6 (1.6)
Age Mean (SD) 8.2 (1.1) 8.3 (1.1) 7.9 (1.1) 8.4 (1.0) 8.2 (1.1) 7.9 (1.1) 8.2 (1.1)
Sex
 Boys   527 (66) 265 (68) 40 (57) 35 (66) 1548 (64) 22 (96) 9185 (54)
 Girls   241 (30) 126 (32) 30 (43) 18 (34) 866 (36) 1 (4) 7840 (46)
 Missing   28 (3.5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 5 (0.2) 0 (0) 25 (0.2)
Mother’s age
 ≤ 24   5 (0.6) 1 (0.3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 11 (0.5) 0 (0.0) 44 (0.3)
 25–30   88 (11.1) 47 (12.0) 8 (11.4) 5 (9.4) 337 (13.9) 4 (17.4) 2063 (12.1)
 31–34   419 (52.6) 211 (54.0) 35 (50.0) 31 (58.5) 1330 (55.0) 12 (52.2) 9883 (58.0)
 35–40   184 (23.1) 110 (28.1) 14 (20.0) 12 (22.6) 565 (23.4) 7 (30.4) 3924 (23.0)
 ≥ 41   19 (2.4) 2 (0.5) 3 (4.3) 1 (1.9) 40 (4.3) 0 (0.0) 345 (2.0)
 Missing   81 (10.2) 20 (5.1) 10 (14.3) 4 (7.6) 136 (5.6) 0 (0.0) 791 (4.6)
Father’s age
 ≤ 24   2 (0.3) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 6 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 23 (0.1)
 25–30   21 (2.6) 8 (2.1) 1 (1.4) 2 (3.8) 92 (3.8) 2 (8.7) 551 (3.2)
 31–34   393 (49.4) 183 (46.8) 34 (48.6) 30 (56.6) 1215 (50.2) 9 (39.1) 8604 (50.5)
 35–40   265 (33.3) 169 (43.2) 21 (30.0) 18 (34.0) 869 (37.0) 11 (47.8) 6197 (36.4)
 ≥ 41   45 (5.7) 12 (3.1) 5 (7.1) 2 (3.8) 85 (3.5) 1 (4.4) 835 (4.9)
 Missing   70 (8.8) 18 (4.6) 9 (12.9) 1 (1.9) 125 (5.2) 0 (0.0) 840 (4.9)
Mother’s education
 Junior high or lower   366 (46.0) 168 (43.0) 35 (50.0) 18 (34.0) 1023 (42.29) 11 (47.8) 5359 (31.4)
 High school   252 (31.7) 130 (33.3) 25 (35.7) 21 (39.6) 908 (37.5) 8 (34.8) 6972 (40.9)
 College or university   116 (14.6) 71 (18.2) 5 (7.1) 12 (22.6) 416 (17.2) 4 (17.4) 4248 (24.9)
 Graduate school   8 (1.0) 6 (1.5) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.9) 14 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 125 (0.7)
 Missing   54 (6.8) 16 (4.1) 5 (7.1) 1 (1.9) 58 (2.4) 0 (0.0) 346 (2.0)
Father’s education
 Junior high or lower   264 (33.1) 115 (29.4) 22 (31.4) 16 (30.2) 729 (30.1) 10 (43.5) 3795 (22.3)
 High school   285 (35.8) 144 (36.83) 30 (42.9) 1040 (40.9) 988 (40.8) 7 (30.4) 6732 (39.5)
 College or university   175 (22.0) 101 (25.8) 14 (20.0) 627 (24.7) 602 (24.9) 4 (17.4) 5697 (33.4)
 Graduate school   14 (1.8) 10 (2.6) 1 (1.4) 29 (1.1) 26 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 321 (1.9)
 Missing   58 (7.3) 21 (5.4) 3 (4.3) 79 (3.1) 74 (3.1) 2 (8.7) 505 (3.0)
Mother’s occupation
 Public servant hired by the government   6 (0.8) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 18 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 64 (0.4)
 Company clerks   213 (26.8) 93 (23.8) 13 (18.6) 13 (18.6) 611 (25.3) 3 (13.0) 5226 (30.7)
 Industry workers   45 (5.7) 28 (7.2) 6 (8.6) 6 (8.6) 157 (6.5) 2 (8.7) 1232 (7.2)
 Self-employed   191 (24.0) 109 (27.9) 21 (30.0) 21 (30.0) 669 (27.7) 6 (26.1) 4451 (26.1)
 Other worker   79 (9.9) 27 (6.9) 3 (4.3) 3 (4.3) 237 (9.8) 3 (13.0) 1224 (7.2)
 Student   1 (0.1) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 27 (0.2)
 Farmer   49 (6.2) 28 (7.2) 11 (15.7) 11 (15.7) 158 (6.5) 2 (8.7) 684 (4.0)
 Unemployed   206 (25.9) 103 (26.3) 16 (22.9) 16 (22.9) 558 (23.1) 7 (30.4) 4102 (24.1)
 Missing   6 (0.8) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 8 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 40 (0.2)
Father’s occupation
 Public servant hired by the government   8 (1.0) 5 (1.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 35 (1.5) 1 (4.4) 244 (1.4)
 Company clerks   236 (29.7) 108 (27.6) 23 (32.9) 14 (26.4) 741 (30.6) 11 (47.8) 6385 (37.5)
 Industry workers   66 (8.3) 49 (12.5) 8 (11.4) 4 (7.6) 219 (9.1) 1 (4.4) 1489 (8.7)
 Self-employed   272 (34.2) 148 (37.9) 25 (35.7) 24 (45.3) 900 (37.2) 6 (26.1) 6242 (36.6)
 Other worker   95 (11.9) 34 (8.7) 3 (4.3) 6 (11.3) 262 (10.8) 3 (13.0) 1287 (7.6)
 Student   2 (0.3) 0 (0.0)     0 (0.0) 8 (0.1)
 Farmer   36 (4.5) 16 (4.1) 6 (8.6) 1 (1.9) 111 (4.6) 0 (0.0) 418 (2.5)
 Unemployed   75 (9.4) 31 (7.9) 5 (7.1) 4 (7.6) 148 (6.1) 1 (4.4) 935 (5.5)
 Missing   6 (0.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 42 (0.3)
Income
 ≤ 1999   46 (5.8) 31 (7.9) 4 (5.7) 4 (7.6) 135 (5.6) 0 (0.0) 609 (3.6)
 2000–3999   181 (22.7) 89 (22.8) 17 (24.3) 14 (26.4) 480 (19.8) 5 (21.7) 2569 (15.1)
 4000–5999   156 (19.6) 81 (20.7) 16 (22.9) 12 (22.6) 515 (21.3) 9 (39.1) 3047 (17.9)
 6000–7999   104 (13.1) 38 (9.7) 10 (14.3) 7 (13.2) 336 (13.9) 3 (13.0) 2552 (15.0)
 8000–9999   68 (8.5) 36 (9.2) 4 (5.7) 4 (7.6) 227 (9.4) 1 (4.4) 2049 (12.0)
 ≥ 10,000   112 (14.1) 69 (17.7) 10 (14.3) 6 (11.3) 500 (20.7) 3 (13.0) 4699 (27.6)
 Missing   129 (16.2) 47 (12.0) 9 (12.9) 6 (11.3) 226 (9.3) 2 (8.7) 1525 (8.9)