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Table 5 Summary of prevalence studies of autism spectrum disorders in Chinese populations between 2012 and 2016 (10 studies)

From: Autism prevalence in China is comparable to Western prevalence

Year First author Region Sample size Area Age Sample screened Screen methods Screen tools Response rate P/R Diagnostic tools Diagnostic criteria Childhood autism prevalence/SE (per 10,000) ASC prevalence/SE (per 10,000)
2012 Uncertain Mainland 148,030 Ningxia 0–14 WP R ABCS R CARS ICD-10 5.2
2013 Lai Taiwan 4,004,997 Taiwan 3–17 WP R R  
2014 Chen Mainland 5500 Zhuhai 1.5–3 SG Q M-CHAT 90.9% P CARS DSM-IV 29.5
2014 Deng Mainland 4980 Henyang 3–6 K Q CABS 98.3% P CARS DSM-IV 16.8 62.7
2015 Wang Mainland 8000 Zaozhuang 2–6 K Q CABS 88.2% P CARS DSM-V 66.3
2015 Jiang Mainland 10,385 Shanghai 4–6 K Q CABS 93.1% P ADI-R DSM-V 9.3
2015 Yang Mainland 15,200 Shenzhen 4 K Q Q 91.2% P ABC Uncertain (questionable autism 2.6%) Uncertain
2015 Wang Mainland 51,968 Shantou 3–6 WP R 26.7
2015 Sun Mainland 737 Beijing 6–10 WP Q CAST 97% P ADOS, ADI-R DSM-IV 119
2016 Wang Mainland 7463 Jilin 6–11 SG Q CAST 86.8% P CCMD-3 63.7
  1. –, data not available. Sample screened: C clinical patients, SG stratified general population, K kindergartens, WP whole population, PS primary schools, HS population in health system; screen methods: R records, QI questionnaire-based interview, C clinical referral, Q questionnaire distribution. ABC Autism Behaviour Checklist, CABS Clancy Autism Behavioural Scale, ASDASQ Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults Screening Questionnaire, M-CHAT The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers, CARS Childhood Autism Rating Scale, P perspective; R retrospective, CAST Childhood Autism Spectrum Test, ADOS Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADI-R Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, DSM-IV-TR Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, DSM-V Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, ICD-10 International Classification of Disease-10th revision