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Table 4 Summary of prevalence studies of autism spectrum disorders in China (25 studies)

From: Autism prevalence in China is comparable to Western prevalence

Year First author Region Sample size Area Age Sample screened Screen methods Screen tools Cut-off Response rate P/R Diagnostic tools Diagnostic criteria Childhood autism prevalence/SE (per 10,000) ASC prevalence/SE (per 10,000)
1987 Tao [25] Mainland 457,200 Urban 3–8 C R N/A N/A N/A R N/A Rutter 0.32 (0.08)
2000 Luo [51] Mainland 10,802 Mixed 2–14 SG QI ABC 31 100% P N/A CCMD-2-R, DSM-III-R 2.8 (1.60)
2002 Wang [30] Mainland 3.978 Urban 2–6 K QI CABS* 7 98.3% P CARS CCMD-2-R 17.9 (6.70)
2002 Ren [43] Mainland 3559 Urban 3–5 SG QI CABS 14 99.1% P N/A N/A 250 (2.31)
2003 Wang[52] Mainland 7488 Mixed 2–6 SG QI CABS 7 98.08% P CARS CCMD-2-R 12.3 (4.05)
2003 Chang [26] Taiwan 660 Mixed 15–93 C C ASDASQ 5 100% P N/A DSM-IV 60.0 (30.06)
2004 Guo [53] Mainland 5000 Urban 0–6 WP QI CABS 7 99.1% P CARS CCMD-2-R 10 (4.47)
2004 Guo [54] Mainland 3776 Rural 2–6 SG QI CABS 7 100% P CARS DSM-IV 8 (4.59)
2005 Zhang [55] Mainland 7416 Urban 2–6 SG QI CABS 7 99% P CARS DSM-IV 11.0 (3.85)
2005 Zhang [29] Mainland 1305 Urban 3–7 K QI CABS 14 100% P N/A N/A 19.9 (2.47)
2005 Liu [56] Mainland 21,866 Mixed 2–6 SG QI CABS 7 100% P CARS DSM-IV 13.4 (2.47) 15.3 (2.64)
2007 Yang [31] Mainland 10,412 Urban 3–12 PS QI ABC 31 100% P N/A DSM-IV 5.6 (2.32)
2007 Wong [22] Hong Kong 4,247,206 Mixed 0–14 HS R N/A N/A N/A R CARS, ADI-R DSM-IV 16.1 (0.19)
2008 Zhang [21] Mainland 8681 Urban 2–3 SG QI CHAT N/A 100% P CARS DSM-IV 16.1 (4.3)
2008 Zhang [21] Mainland 12,430 Urban 4–6 SG QI CABS 14 100% P CARS DSM-IV 8.85 (2.7)
2009 Zhang [57] Mainland 5000 Urban 0–6 SG QI CABS 7 99.98% P CARS CCMD-2-R 10.0 (4.47)
2009 Wang [28] Mainland 4156 Urban 2–6 K QI CABS 14 100% P N/A N/A 19.5 (6.84)
2010 Li [58] Mainland 8006 Mixed 1.5–3 SG QI CHAT N/A 92.99% P CARS DSM-IV 26.2 (5.71)
2010 Wu [59] Mainland 8532 Urban 0–3 SG QI CHAT N/A 100% P CARS DSM-IV 8.2 (3.10)
2010 Yu [33] Mainland 7059 Mixed 2–6 SG Q CABS 7 89.7% P N/A DSM-IV 21.2 (5.47) 22.7 (5.66)
2010 Chen [32] Mainland 7034 Mixed 2–6 SG Q CABS 7 98.78% P CARS DSM-IV 14.2 (4.49) 24.2 (5.86)
2011 Wang [27] Mainland 7500 Urban 2–6 K QI CABS 14 87.8% P N/A DSM-IV 29.5 (6.26) 75.4 (9.99)
2011 Liang [60] Mainland 2485 Urban 3–6 K QI CABS 14 100% P N/A DSM-IV, ICD-10 14.1 (7.53)
2011 Li [24] Mainland 616,940 Mixed 0–17 SG QI ABC N/A N/A P N/A ICD-10 2.38 (0.20)
2011 Chien [23] Taiwan 372,642 Mixed 0–17 HS R N/A N/A N/A R N/A ICD-9 28.7 (0.88)
  1. –, data not available. Sample screened: C clinical patients, SG stratified general population, K kindergartens, WP whole population, PS primary schools, HS population in health system; screen methods: R records, QI questionnaire-based interview, C clinical referral, Q questionnaire distribution. ABC Autism Behaviour Checklist, CABS Clancy Autism Behavioural Scale, ASDASQ Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults Screening Questionnaire, M-CHAT The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers, CARS Childhood Autism Rating Scale, P perspective, R retrospective, CAST Childhood Autism Spectrum Test, ADOS Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADI-R Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, DSM-IV-TR Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, DSM-V Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, ICD-10 International Classification of Disease-10th revision