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Table 3 Item discrimination indices and PPV for each of the 50 items in the AQ across India, Japan and UK

From: A cross-cultural study of autistic traits across India, Japan and the UK

  India Japan UK
AQ item summary DI PPV DI PPV DI PPV
1. Prefers to do things with others rather than alone .06c .66c .38b .56b .43b .75b
2. Prefers to do things the same way over and over again .52b .60b .54b .59b .62a .70a
3. Finds it very easy to create a picture in her/his mind .67a .94a .45b .89b .55a .81a
4. Gets absorbed in one thing and loses sight of other things .29c .59c .40b .49b .32b .60b
5. Notices small sounds when others do not .20c .46c .35b .61b .52b .68b
6. Notices house numbers or similar strings of information -.25c .33c .37b .80b .30b .61b
7. Has difficulty understanding rules for polite behaviour .58a .78a .44b .96b .80a .89a
8. Can easily imagine what characters in a story look like .86a 1a .44b .64b .67a .93a
9. Fascinated by dates -.22c .22c .19c .66c .16c .62c
10. Can easily keep track of different conversations .57 a .89 a .51 a .76 a .69 a .79 a
11. Finds social situations easy .68a .90a .60b .66b .75a .86a
12. Tends to notice details that others do not .08c .36c .32b .49b .24c .56c
13. Would rather go to a library than a birthday party .17c .50c .26c .60c .40b .91b
14. Finds making up stories easy .87a .81a .38b .45b .59a .79a
15. Drawn more strongly to people than to things .39b .50b .36b .49b .55a .74a
16. Has strong interests, gets upset if cannot pursue .30b .56b .53a .81a .36b .63b
17. Enjoys social chit-chat .75 a .75 a .52 a .97 a .71 a .90 a
18. When talking, it is not easy to get a word in edgeways .02 c .31 c .60 a .83 a .17 c .57 c
19. Fascinated -.03c .44c .39b .81b .20c .66c
20. Finds it difficult to work out characters’ feelings in a story .39b .58b .37b .68b .72a .88a
21. Does not particularly enjoy fictional stories .42b .83b .31b .63b .34b .80b
22. Finds it hard to make new friends .64a .74a .39b .67b .67a .85a
23. Notices patterns in things all the time .10c .57c .24c .63c .37b .66b
24. Would rather go to the cinema than a museum -.24c .36c .44b .63b .28c .68c
25. Is not upset if daily routine is disturbed .13c .45c .34b .67b .63a .78a
26. Does not know how to keep a conversation going .64b .68b .78a 1a .86a .92a
27. Finds it easy to “read between the lines” in conversation .47b .81b .85a .84a .61a .76a
28. Concentrates more on a whole picture, rather than details .23c .86c .58b .59b .49b .69b
29. Not very good at remembering phone numbers .03c .32c -.08c .26c -.17c .45c
30. Does not usually notice small changes -.12c .36c -.13c .35c -.09c .42c
31. Knows if someone listening is getting bored .65 a .72 a .80 a .87 a .66 a .74 a
32. Finds it easy to alternate between different activities .58a .92a .52b .54b .72a .81a
33. Not sure when it is her/his turn to speak on the phone .48b .62b .52a .93a .69a .84a
34. Enjoys doing things spontaneously .23 c .50 c .26 c .82 c .57 a .89 a
35. Often the last to understand the point of a joke .14 c .54 c .71 a 1 a .62 a .81 a
36. Finds it easy to tell how someone feels from their face .68a .80a .59b .60b .69a .87a
37. Can switch back to what they were doing if interrupted .30b .80b .51a .87a .63a .84a
38. Good at social chit-chat .75 a .86 a .73 a .98 a .80 a .90 a
39. People say they go on and on about the same thing .44b .68b .59a .94a .41b .70b
40. Enjoyed playing pretend games with others in preschool .78a .87a .38b .69b .71a .86a
41. Likes to collect information about categories of things -.40c .34c .26c .52c .22c .61c
42. Finds it difficult to imagine being someone else .38b .55b .79a .85a .62a .79a
43. Likes to plan any activities s/he participates in carefully -.51c .25c .08c .30c .18c .56c
44. Enjoys social occasions .23 c .66 c .51 a .87 a .56 a .92 a
45. Finds it difficult to work out people’s intentions .50 a .72 a .80 a .83 a .63 a .76 a
46. New situations make him/her anxious .61b .59b .50b .59b .45b .65b
47. Enjoys meeting new people .40b .82b .25c .51c .49b .84b
48. Is good at taking care not to hurt other people’s feelings .60a .79a .41b .61b .73a .88a
49. Not very good at remembering people’s date of birth -.26c .27c .19c .42c -.18c .46c
50. Finds it easy to play pretend games with children .73a .93a .36b .63b .69a .89a
  1. aKey indicator item: excellent item performance (DI ≥ 0.5 and PPV ≥ 0.7); bitem performed acceptably (DI ≥ 0.3); citem performed poorly (DI < 0.3) Bold text: ‘Universal’ key indicator item with excellent performance across all three countries. Italics: ‘Cultural Difference’ item with variable item performance across countries