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Table 1 Inclusion criteria, recruitment and collection methods of the samples from UK, Japan and India

From: A cross-cultural study of autistic traits across India, Japan and the UK

  UK Japan India
Inclusion criteria All
Aged 4–9 years
Lives in UK
No diagnosed ID
No siblings in the study
All
Aged 4–9 years
Lives in Tokyo
No diagnosed ID
No siblings in the study
All
Aged 4–9 years
Lives in Kolkata or Delhi
No diagnosed ID
Primary language Hindi (if in Delhi) or Bengali (if in Kolkata)
No visual, hearing, motor, neurological or mental health disorder
No siblings in the study
Cases
Diagnosed by recognised clinical service, according to DSM-IVa or DSM-5b criteria.
Cases
Diagnosis confirmed by school and/or clinic
Diagnosis by DSM-IVa/ICD-10c
No additional diagnosis other than ASD
Cases
Diagnosis by DSM-IVa/ICD-10c
Controls
No neurodevelopmental disorder
Controls
No diagnosable condition
Controls
No formal diagnosis of any mental health condition
Autism recruitment Via ARC’s volunteer database Special education schools for children with developmental disorders Not-for-profit organisations providing support for people with ASD
Control recruitment Mainstream schools in Cambridgeshire, UK Mainstream schools in Tokyo Mainstream schools in Kolkata and Delhi, general population
AQ-Child method of completion Cases online; controls pen and paper Pen and paper Pen and paper
Informant Either parent Mothers Either parent
  1. ARC Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ICD International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, UK United Kingdom
  2. aDSM-IV [48]
  3. bDSM-5 [1]
  4. cICD-10 [49]