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Table 2 Summary of Results

From: Links between looking and speaking in autism and first-degree relatives: insights into the expression of genetic liability to autism

  Control Group ASD Group Main Effect of Group Main Effect of Conditiona Group X Conditiona Interaction
Symbolic Non-Symbolic Symbolic Non-Symbolic
M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) F df p η2 F df p η2 F df p η2
Naming Performance
 Overall Naming Time 13.61 (3.91) 22.16 (5.93) 17.91 (6.09) 29.74 (9.74) 15.33 1, 92 < 0.001 * 0.14 8.78 1, 92 0.004 * 0.09 9.66 1, 92 0.003 * 0.10
 Errors 0.77 (0.97) 1.15 (1.57) 1.64 (1.87) 2.74 (2.76) 7.95 1, 92 0.006 * 0.08 4.75 1, 92 0.032 0.05 2.04 1, 92 0.157 0.02
Eye Movement
 Eye-voice Span 1.46 (0.4) 1.11 (0.19) 1.2 (0.29) 1.01 (0.23) 12.29 1, 93 0.001 * 0.12 1.61 1, 93 0.207 0.02 6.84 1, 93 0.01 0.07
 Total Fixations 29.66 (3.74) 33.95 (4.44) 31.51 (5.55) 37.62 (5.47) 5.46 1, 93 0.022 0.06 2.51 1, 93 0.117 0.03 2.08 1, 93 0.153 0.02
 Refixations 8.91 (2.47) 8.69 (4.44) 11.02 (3.7) 13.49 (5.07) 13.96 1, 93 < 0.001 * 0.96 0.73 1, 93 0.40 0.14 8.00 1, 93 0.006 * 0.80
  Parent-control Group Parent-ASD Group Main Effect of Group Main Effect of Condition Group X Condition Interactiona
Symbolic Non-Symbolic Symbolic Non-Symbolic
M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) F df p η2 F df p η2 F df p η2
Naming Performance
 Overall Naming Time 13.05 (2.2) 20.51 (3.32) 13.89 (2.44) 21.78 (3.32) 5.95 1, 188 0.016 0.03 8.60 1, 188 0.004 * 0.04 0.91 1, 188 0.342 0.01
 Errors 0.36 (0.5) 0.54 (0.75) 0.41 (0.65) 0.94 (1.06) 3.26 1, 188 0.041 0.02 4.66 1, 188 0.032 0.02 3.83 1, 188 0.052 0.02
Eye Movement
 Eye-voice Span 1.48 (0.33) 1.11 (0.13) 1.37 (0.33) 1.06 (0.16) 5.13 1, 189 0.025 0.03 234.01 1, 189 < 0.001 * 0.55 2.33 1, 189 0.129 0.01
 Total Fixations 27.1 (4.25) 32.96 (3.64) 29.39 (4.24) 34.54 (3.8) 13.43 1, 189 < 0.001 * 0.07 255.13 1, 189 < 0.001 * 0.57 1.05 1, 189 0.306 0.01
 Refixations 8.68 (2.65) 9.71 (4.91) 9.09 (2.93) 10.58 (4.67) 1.50 1, 189 0.22 0.23 15.03 1, 189 < 0.001 * 0.97 0.52 1, 189 0.47 0.11
  1. Bold indicates significance p < .05.
  2. aCondition refers to symbolic (letter and number) and non-symbolic (object and color) RAN conditions
  3. *indicates significance following Bonferroni corrected significance value p ≤ .008