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Table 2 LEAP twin sample diagnosis, ratings on symptoms and adaptive behavior (N = 106)

From: EU-AIMS Longitudinal European Autism Project (LEAP): the autism twin cohort

  ASD twinsa n = 48 Non-ASD twinsb n = 28 TD twinsc n = 30 Group comparison p value; effect size Between differences (post hoc)
SRS-2d mean (SD) 90.3 (27.2) 32.9 (23.9) 30.4 (25.1) < .001; η2 = .57 a > b, c
ADI-R mean (SD)
 Total score 30.4 (15.0) 7.8 (8.1) 3.8 (4.5) < .001; η2 = .63 a > b, c
ADOS-2e mean (SD) 5.9 (2.5) 1.9 (1.1) 1.9 (1.6) <.001; η2 = .53 a > b, c
Intellectual disability % 18.8 3.6 0 .010; φ = .29 a > c
Full-scale IQf mean (SD) 92.7 (19.6) 99.0 (14.6) 103.7 (13.0) .051; η2 = .06 a < c
ADHD symptomsg mean (SD) 22.9 (12.4) 11.3 (11.6) 4.2 (4.6) < .001; η2 = .37 a > b, c; b > c
VABS-2h mean (SD)
 Adaptive Behavior Composite 72.8 (18.4) 95.6 (17.5) 103.2 (8.9) < .001; η2 = .41 a < b, c
CIS mean (SD)
 Self reporti 9.7 (6.7) 10.3 (9.3) 6.3 (5.3) .090; η2 = .05 a > c
 Parent report 14.0 (8.0) 9.3 (8.7) 6.5 (6.8) <  0.001; η2 = .17 a > b, c
  1. Note. aIn ASD-discordant and concordant pairs
  2. bIn ASD-discordant pairs
  3. cTypically developed pairs
  4. dParent-reported Social Responsiveness Scale-2
  5. eADOS-2 comparison scores
  6. fWISC-IV/WAIS-IV/WASI-2
  7. gDSM-5 ADHD rating scale
  8. hVineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-2
  9. iColumbia Impairment Scale