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Table 1 Summary of the meta-analyses performed on fetal antidepressant exposure during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorders

From: Association between maternal antidepressant use during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorder: an updated meta-analysis

    Overall effect Heterogeneity
  Medication No. of studies OR/HR (95% CI) Z P value I2 (%) P Tau
Cohort studies
 Pregnancy Any antidepressant 7 1.13 (0.93–1.39) 1.22 0.224 61.4 0.016 0.0437
  Any SSRI 3 1.22 (0.83–1.79) 0.99 0.320 64.7 0.059 0.0749
 First trimester Any antidepressant 5 1.01 (0.82–1.24) 0.06 0.953 31.9 0.209 0.0174
  Any SSRI 3 1.04 (0.81–1.34) 0.32 0.747 42.7 0.155 0.027
 Second and/or third trimester Any antidepressant 4 1.35 (0.96–1.90) 1.75 0.080 46.4 0.133 0.0552
  Any SSRI 3 1.43 (0.84–2.42) 1.32 0.187 71.6 0.030 0.1549
 Prepregnancy Any antidepressant 2 1.26 (0.91–1.74) 1.40 0.160 67.1 0.081 0.0365
  Any SSRI 1 1.46 (1.17–1.81)      
Case-control studies
 Pregnancy Any antidepressant 6 1.51 (1.15–1.99) 3.00 0.003 44.6 0.108 0.0478
  Any SSRI 4 1.81 (1.46–2.23) 5.50 < 0.001 0.0 0.908 < 0.0001
 First trimester Any antidepressant 5 1.69 (1.17–2.44) 2.81 0.005 46.3 0.114 0.0756
  Any SSRI 2 2.08 (1.54–2.81) 4.78 < 0.001 7.2 0.340 0.0098
 Second trimester Any antidepressant 5 1.62 (1.22–2.16) 3.31 0.001 8.6 0.358 0.0107
  Any SSRI 3 1.94 (1.41–2.68) 4.04 < 0.001 0.0 0.413 < 0.0001
 Third trimester Any antidepressant 5 1.47 (0.88–2.44) 1.48 0.140 60.0 0.040 0.1843
  Any SSRI 3 2.32 (1.63–3.30) 4.68 < 0.001 0.0 0.515 < 0.0001
 Prepregnancy Any antidepressant 4 1.70 (1.43–2.02) 6.04 < 0.001 0.0 0.897 < 0.0001
  Any SSRI 2 1.81 (1.43–2.29) 4.92 < 0.001 0.0 0.896 < 0.0001