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Fig. 3 | Molecular Autism

Fig. 3

From: Insulin receptor sensitization restores neocortical excitation/inhibition balance in a mouse model of autism

Fig. 3

Insulin and pioglitazone treatment effects on the E/I ratio in Met-EMx1 brain slices. ac Regular spiking of layer IV excitatory neurons in control (Met-EMx1) slices, and after application of insulin (Met-EMx1 I), or insulin + pioglitazone (Met-EMx1 I + P). d, g In mutant brain slices, stimulation of VB induced mainly an EPSP without a clear cut IPSP. Isolated AMPA receptor- and GABAA receptor-mediated currents reveal small IPSC. e, h Application of insulin (Met-EMx1 I) did not change the magnitude of GABAA receptor-mediated response. f, i Addition of pioglitazone to insulin application dramatically increased GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition. j The averaged AMPA/GABA (E/I) ratio is similar between no drug treatment and insulin alone treatment conditions, but application of pioglitazone along with insulin dramatically changed this ratio. k Box and whisker plots showing the population distribution

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