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Table 3 The longitudinal association of autistic traits and autism spectrum disorder with sleep problems

From: The bidirectional association between sleep problems and autism spectrum disorder: a population-based cohort study

   Sleep problems at 6 years Sleep problems at 9 years
Autism measure   B 95% CI p B 95% CI p
Autistic traits* 1.5 years
  Model 1 0.13 0.09–0.16 < 0.01 0.10 0.06–0.14 < 0.01
  Model 2 0.07 0.03–0.10 < 0.01 0.08 0.03–0.12 < 0.01
Autistic traits* 3 years
  Model 1 0.13 0.10–0.16 < 0.01 0.06 0.04–0.08 < 0.01
  Model 2 0.05 0.02–0.08 < 0.01 0.04 0.03–0.06 < 0.01
Autistic traits** 6 years
  Model 1 0.13 0.10–0.16 < 0.01 0.14 0.10–0.18 < 0.01
  Model 2 0.11 0.07–0.14 < 0.01
ASD 6 years
  Model 1 0.46 0.24–0.68 < 0.01 0.84 0.58–1.10 < 0.01
  Model 2 0.74 0.49–0.99 < 0.01
  1. Model 1 was adjusted for gender, ethnicity, gestational age, maternal education, and maternal psychopathology. Model 2 was additionally adjusted for prevalent sleep problems
  2. Abbreviations: ASD autism spectrum disorder, PDP Pervasive Development Problem scale, SRS Social Responsiveness Scale
  3. *Measured with PDP-scale CBCL
  4. **Measured with SRS score