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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: The bidirectional association between sleep problems and autism spectrum disorder: a population-based cohort study

  N No ASD diagnosis N = 5062 ASD diagnosis N = 81
Child characteristics
Gender (% girls) 5143 50.1 13.6*
Gestational age at birth (weeks) 5102 39.80 (0.03) 39.36 (0.26)*
Ethnicity (%)
 Dutch 3386 69.7 75.6
 Other-Western 461 9.5 7.7
 Non-Western 1007 20.8 16.7
Sleep problem score
 At 1.5 years 3875 1.51 (0.03) 1.75 (0.26)
 At 3 years 3837 1.50 (0.03) 1.77 (0.24)
 At 6 years 4981 1.02 (0.02) 1.85 (0.25)*
 At 9 years 4003 0.82 (0.02) 1.92 (0.28)*
Trajectories of sleep problems (%)
 Increasing sleep problems 622 15.6 33.8*
 Decreasing sleep problems 2432 54.8 43.7*
 Stable medium sleep problems 1318 29.6 22.5
Autistic traits
 PDP score––1.5 years 3840 1.77 (0.03) 2.26 (0.23)*
 PDP score––3 years 3823 2.03 (0.03) 4.81 (0.44)*
 SRS score––6 years 5130 0.22 (0.00) 0.97 (0.08)*
Abdominal pain (%) 5064 7.5 5.7
Functional constipation (%) 4894 3.5 7.5
Maternal Characteristics
Age at inclusion (years) 5143 31.4 (0.1) 31.0 (0.5)
Educational level (%)    
 No education/primary school 275 5.7 2.6
 High school/lower vocational training 1885 38.6 51.3*
 Higher vocational or academic training 2699 55.7 46.2
Psychopathology score 5295 0.24 (0.00) 0.38 (0.07)*
  1. Data represent means (SDs) unless specified otherwise
  2. Abbreviations: PDP Pervasive Development Problem scale, SRS Social Responsiveness Scale
  3. *p < 0.05