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Fig. 3 | Molecular Autism

Fig. 3

From: Network-specific sex differentiation of intrinsic brain function in males with autism

Fig. 3

Overlaps consistent with a shift-towards-maleness and a shift-towards-femaleness. For each panel, a and b, the left columns illustrate on inflated surface maps (BrainNet Viewer; https://www.nitrc.org/projects/bnv) the regions of significant spatial overlap based on the conjunction of statistical Z-maps resulting from the ABIDE I and FCP studies (voxel-level thresholded at Z ≥ 2.58) for each resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) metric. The histograms in the right column of each panel describe the percentage of voxels within the above clusters included in the seven functional cortical networks described by Yeo et al. [40]. R-fMRI abbreviations: DC degree centrality, fALFF fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations, ReHo regional homogeneity, VMHC voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity, PCC-iFC posterior cingulate cortex intrinsic functional connectivity. Seven functional Yeo networks: VS visual network, SM somatomotor network, DA dorsal attention network, VA ventral attention network, LB limbic network, FP fronto-parietal network, DN default network. a Overlaps consistent with the Extreme Male Brain (EMB) theory: Hyper-connectivity consistent with a shift-towards-maleness (STM) was mainly present in the FP network for ReHo, whereas an STM hypo-connectivity for ReHo, VMHC, and PCC-iFC and decreased fALFF were mainly centered around the DN. Color codes: turquoise = STM ASD-related increases (EMB 1); blue = STM ASD-related decreases (EMB 2). b Overlaps consistent with the Gender Incoherence (GI) theory: Hyper-connectivity consistent with a shift-towards-femaleness (STF) was mainly in DN for DC and ReHo, whereas an STF hypo-connectivity across DC, ReHo, VMHC, and PCC-iFC was mainly centered around the SM network. Color codes: orange = STF ASD-related increases (GI 1); yellow = STF ASD-related decreases (GI 2)

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