Skip to main content

Table 4 Plasma and urinary amino acid metabolome

From: Advanced glycation endproducts, dityrosine and arginine transporter dysfunction in autism - a source of biomarkers for clinical diagnosis

Amino acid Plasma (μM)   Urine (nmol/mg creatinine)
Healthy controls ASD P value Healthy controls ASD P value
Ala 294 ± 71.5 330 ± 98.3   301 (224–432) 392 (305–533) 0.030
Arg 39.4 ± 10.3 48.4 ± 16.6 0.016 52.1 ± 17.1 64.0 ± 18.0 0.014
Asn 33.2 ± 4.57 34.3 ± 10.6   92.4 (72.1–132) 169 (123–236) 0.0012*
Asp 35.5 ± 7.37 37.0 ± 10.0   142 (112–179) 160 (117–241)  
Cys (total) 41.7 ± 10.4 46.1 ± 15.0   25.3 (20.4–35.9) 28.3 (21.1–43.3)  
Gln 463 ± 38.6 496 ± 61.2 0.024 529 (452–704) 741 (609–876) 0.0048
Glu 1672 ± 324 1999 ± 619 0.034 373 (254–495) 475 (367–690) 0.010
Gly 272 (187–1061) 241 (121–515)   1.12 (1.19–2.78) 2.58 (1.84–3.45) 0.019
His 68.0 ± 8.51 72.8 ± 9.96   2.19 ± 0.88 2.90 ± 1.21 0.027
IIe 50.7 ± 15.3 51.6 ± 12.4   13.0 ± 4.37 18.1 ± 6.50 0.0059
Leu 126 ± 34.4 132 ± 25.6   43.1 ± 13.6 52.0 ± 13.5 0.028
Lys 132 ± 20.3 146 ± 36.7   136 (83.3–264) 171 (117–352)  
Met 23.1 ± 6.41 26.2 ± 5.84   17.9 ± 7.98 23.1 ± 7.20 0.0037
Phe 68.9 ± 11.3 68.8 ± 16.8   101 ± 38.9 110 ± 32.9  
Pro 195 ± 65.4 223 ± 94.7   14.5 ± 6.21 20.7 ± 5.37 0.00073**
Ser 128 ± 23.5 132 ± 18.7   461 (413–621) 677 (519–910) 0.0021*
Thr 116 ± 36.0 141 ± 46.8 0.041 216 (170–265) 283 (221–405) 0.0039
Trp 5.22 ± 1.26 3.92 ± 2.40 0.0055 114 ± 73.6 164 ± 48.6 0.0043
Tyr 84.4 ± 21.3 87.9 ± 26.8   204 (133–255) 240 (173–317)  
Val 125 ± 31.3 120 ± 26.0   25.6 ± 9.52 34.8 ± 10.9 0.00073**
  1. Data are Mean ± SD or median (lower–upper quartile); healthy controls, n = 21, and ASD, n = 27. Significance: t test for parametric data and Mann-Whitney U for non-parametric data
  2. *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01 after Bonferroni correction of 20 applied