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Table 3 Plasma and urinary glycation, oxidation, and nitration free adduct in plasma filtrate

From: Advanced glycation endproducts, dityrosine and arginine transporter dysfunction in autism - a source of biomarkers for clinical diagnosis

Amino acid Plasma (nM)   Urine (nmol/mg creatinine)
Healthy controls ASD P value Healthy controls ASD P value
FL 1489 (987–1863) 751 (361–1.570) 0.047 56.7 (33.8–128.7) 90.8 (42.4–167.9)  
CML 807 (587–1051) 853 (219–1222)   26.2 (19.7–34.7) 33.1 (26.6–42.6) 0.016
CEL 402 (298–477) 420 (310–599)   0.435 (0.202–0.848) 0.472 (0.180–0.940)  
G-H1 0.819 (0.553–1.26) 0.527 (0.366–0.959) 0.037 1.88 (1.11–3.04) 2.57 (1.53–3.75) 0.024
MG-H1 271 (176–475) 335 (213–500)   18.6 (8.00–27.4) 24.5 (9.14–37.6)  
3DG-H 413 (303–637) 360 (280–434)   2.06 (0.587–4.38) 2.92 (1.09–6.26)  
CMA 9.18 (6.67–12.5) 17.7 (13.2–24.8) 0.00052** 1.46 (0.636–1.97) 1.78 (1.14–2.91) 0.037
GSP 12.8 (7.4–17.1) 12.9 (9.3–22.0)   1.58 (1.15–1.98) 1.53 (1.20–1.98)  
MOLD 1.79 (0.800–3.42) 1.10 (0.503–0.2.21)   0.025 (0.013–0.050) 0.040 (0.017–0.068) 0.027
Pyrraline 22.0 (12.2–30.4) 24.2 (19.4–40.6)   20.6 (14.9–44.2) 34.2 (22.7–72.5) 0.047
DT 0.501 (0.286–0.771) 0.676 (0.500–0.847)   0.070 (0.058–0.085) 0.086 (0.075–0.109) 0.0022*
NFK 15.2 (12.5–18.1) 11.3 (6.23–14.3) 0.030 0.117 (0.084–0.231) 0.179 (0.107–0.238) 0.037
AASA 19.7 (16.9–29.1) 30.6 (21.1–46.4) 0.0063 1.08 (0.805–2.76) 1.80 (1.13–2.89) 0.040
GSA 73.9 (53.2–129) 109 (80.1–203) 0.039 17.3 (13.2–22.7) 34.5 (12.7–48.0) 0.0018*
3-NT 1.10 (0.90–1.26) 1.17 (0.79–1.58)   0.0044 (0.001–0.010) 0.0077 (0.003–0.014)  
  1. Data are median (lower – upper quartile); healthy controls, n = 21–31, and ASD, n = 27–38. Significance (Mann-Whitney U)
  2. *P < 0.05 after Bonferroni correction of 15 applied