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Table 2 Overlap between VPA model and ASD

From: Developmental disruption of amygdala transcriptome and socioemotional behavior in rats exposed to valproic acid prenatally

ASD Prenatal VPA model
Core Pathology [9]
Deficits in social interaction Reduced social investigation, impaired attraction to maternal bedding, maternal odor-induced potentiation of startle
Impaired social communication Reduced USVs and altered call structure
Repetitive/stereotypical behaviors Increased stereotypic-like beam breaks [8, 57]
Additional Symptoms
Comorbid anxiety disorders [36, 37] Reduced open field exploration in females
Enhanced baseline startle amplitude in males
Early amygdala overgrowth [32] Enhanced P10 nervous system and cellular development and function pathways
Reduced amygdala volume [11, 12], neuron number [15], and activity [19, 20] in adolescents and adults Reduced P21 nervous system and cellular development and function, and enhanced cellular death and psychological disorder pathways
Gastrointestinal problems [97] Enhanced P21 gastrointestinal tract and colorectal cancer genes
Immune alterations [96] Altered P10 and P21 immune function and cancer pathways
Male predominance [64] Behavioral alterations primarily in males