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Table 2 Comparison of ADHD and oppositional symptoms between probands, unaffected siblings (US), and TD

From: ADHD-related symptoms and attention profiles in the unaffected siblings of probands with autism spectrum disorder: focus on the subtypes of autism and Asperger’s disorder

  Autism (n = 122) US of autism (n = 122) TD (n = 196)     Cohen’s d
F P Comparisona A:TD US:TD A:US
SNAP-IV
 Inattentive 15.77 ± 6.50 6.34 ± 5.65 5.46 ± 4.65 114.96 <.001 A>US,TD 1.82 0.17 1.55
 Hyperactive/impulsive 10.60 ± 7.04 3.77 ± 4.58 2.92 ± 3.93 69.69 <.001 A>US,TD 1.35 0.20 1.15
 Oppositional 8.36 ± 5.75 5.98 ± 4.73 3.60 ± 3.89 30.17 <.001 A>US>TD 0.97 0.55 0.45
CBCL
 Attention problems 10.60 ± 4.35 3.55 ± 3.61 2.83 ± 2.91 162.70 <.001 A>US,TD 2.10 0.22 1.76
  AS (n = 77) US of AS (n = 77) TD (n = 196)     Cohen’s d
F P Comparisona AS:TD US:TD AS:US
SNAP-IV
 Inattentive 15.88 ± 6.72 6.58 ± 6.55 5.46 ± 4.65 75.39 <.001 AS>US,TD 1.80 0.20 1.40
 Hyperactive/impulsive 11.83 ± 6.89 4.61 ± 5.47 2.92 ± 3.93 65.12 <.001 AS>US>TD 1.59 0.35 1.16
 Oppositional 11.61 ± 6.21 6.64 ± 6.02 3.60 ± 3.89 53.62 <.001 AS>US>TD 1.55 0.60 0.81
CBCL
 Attention problems 11.82 ± 4.51 3.96 ± 4.21 2.83 ± 2.91 138.04 <.001 AS>US,TD 2.37 0.31 1.80
  1. All passed false discovery date correction p < 0.05
  2. Abbreviations: CBCL the Child Behavior Checklist, SNAP-IV the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale
  3. aBonferroni correction p < 0.05