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Table 1 Behavioral data and statistics: Composite z-score (online) is the mean of four z-scores: spatial span backward maximum length, digit span backward maximum length, online letter n-back accuracy, and online spatial n-back accuracy. Composite z-score (offline) is the mean of three z-scores: offline letter n-back accuracy, offline spatial n-back accuracy, and BTA raw score. Composite z-score (full battery) is the mean of five z-scores: spatial span backward maximum length, digit span backward maximum length, letter n-back accuracy (mean of online and offline percentages), spatial n-back accuracy (mean of online and offline percentages), and BTA raw score. Also included are means and standard deviations for 1-back, 2-back, and 3-back for letter and spatial n-back, both online and offline

From: Balanced bifrontal transcranial direct current stimulation enhances working memory in adults with high-functioning autism: a sham-controlled crossover study

  Sham Left anodal Right anodal Repeated measures ANOVA F(2,22) Friedman’s Test χ2 p value
WMS-III, spatial span backward, longest span (blocks) 4.8 (0.9) 6.2 (1.8) 6.0 (0.9)   9.24 0.01
WMS-III, digit span backward, longest span (digits) 5.3 (1.5) 5.5 (1.6) 5.4 (2.0) 0.12   0.891
Spatial n-back accuracy (online) 62.4% (25.0%) 68.6% (22.1%) 66.7% (23.2%)   3.17 0.205
 1-back 74.7% (23.1%) 80.0% (19.9%) 79.6% (21.4%)    
 2-back 61.4% (27.9%) 68.5% (26.4%) 66.2% (25.5%)    
 3-back 49.7% (25.8%) 55.6% (22.9%) 52.7% (25.0%)    
Letter n-back accuracy (online) 69.6% (30.2%) 76.2% (22.5%) 76.3% (26.8%)   0.5 0.779
 1-back 77.3% (26.6%) 82.9% (19.9%) 84.8% (21.7%)    
 2-back 70.4% (32.4%) 76.0% (26.0%) 76.2% (29.3%)    
 3-back 61.1% (33.1%) 69.7% (24.2%) 68.1% (29.7%)    
Composite z-score (online) −0.25 (0.74) 0.15 (0.87) 0.09 (0.81) 7.68   0.003
Spatial n-back accuracy (offline) 63.9% (24.9%) 70.6% (20.9%) 67.7% (24.2) 0.55   0.758
 1-back 76.2% (21.9%) 85.1% (20.2%) 78.4% (21.7%)    
 2-back 63.2% (29.0%) 70.5% (24.3%) 69.8% (26.8%)    
 3-back 52.5% (26.5%) 56.3% (21.8%) 54.6% (26.0)    
Letter n-back accuracy (offline) 72.3% (29.8%) 78.5% (22.5%) 76.5% (25.9%)   0.17 0.92
 1-back 80.7% (23.2%) 86.1% (20.7%) 84.3% (21.6%)    
 2-back 71.1% (33.2%) 77.8% (22.3%) 77.8% (27.2%)    
 3-back 65.1% (33.6%) 71.6% (26.2%) 67.4% (30.0)    
Brief Test of Attention (offline) 6.8 (2.5) 7.4 (2.2) 7.9 (2.5)   7.09 0.029
Composite z-score (offline) −0.18 (0.92) 0.09 (0.77) 0.09 (0.93)   7.17 0.028
Spatial n-back accuracy combined (mean of online and offline percentages) 63.2% (24.7%) 69.6% (20.7%) 67.3% (23.6%)   0.67 0.717
Letter n-back accuracy combined (mean of online and offline percentages) 71.0% (29.8%) 77.4% (22.1%) 76.4% (26.3%)   0.17 0.92
Composite z-score (full battery) −0.25 (0.71) 0.13 (0.82) 0.11 (0.81) 12.85   0.0002