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Table 8 Summary of psychiatric symptom measures by schedule and group

From: The EU-AIMS Longitudinal European Autism Project (LEAP): clinical characterisation

  Total Adults Adolescents Children Mild ID
ASD TD/ID ASD TD ASD TD ASD TD ASD ID
Psychiatric symptom measures
ADHD—inattentiveness 4.55a (3.15)
n = 350
1.29a (2.34)
n = 153
3.18a (3.19)
n = 94
0.88b (1.67)
n = 84
4.82a (3.19)
n = 106
0.88a (1.79)
n = 75
5.20a (2.98)
n = 88
0.67a (1.60)
n = 54
5.21a (2.67)
n = 62
5.17a (2.85)
n = 18
ADHD—hyperactivity/impulsivity 2.83a (2.86)
n = 350
0.56a (1.59)
n = 153
1.22a (1.72)
n = 94
0.55b (1.32)
n = 84
2.70a (2.78)
n = 106
0.19a (0.82)
n = 75
4.41a (2.93)
n = 88
0.35a (1.15)
n = 54
3.27a (2.99)
n = 62
2.94a (2.94)
n = 18
Anxiety 15.05bc (12.76)
n = 104
4.41bc (5.19)
n = 85
49.92bd (10.63)
n = 65
44.42bd (7.55)
n = 65
47.81ad (8.96)
n = 83
38.33ad (5.18)
n = 51
49.17ad (9.45)
n = 29
45.40ad (12.45)
n = 10
Depression 14.11bc (12.41)
n = 103
3.88bc (4.93)
n = 85
51.48bd (10.55)
n = 66
45.56bd (8.05)
n = 66
49.98ad (10.22)
n = 86
39.29ad (4.71)
n = 56
53.17ad (10.07)
n = 29
50.20ad (18.01)
n = 10
  1. ns are lower for some measures due to missing data
  2. ADHD—inattentiveness (ADHD rating scale—inattentiveness subscale), ADHD—hyperactivity/impulsivity (ADHD rating scale—hyperactivity/impulsivity subscale), Anxiety Beck Anxiety Inventory, Depression (Beck Depression Inventory–Second Edition)
  3. aParent-report
  4. bSelf-report
  5. cRaw scores
  6. dStandardised scores