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Table 2 Demographic and clinical characteristics of subjects analyzed in this study

From: Blood–brain barrier and intestinal epithelial barrier alterations in autism spectrum disorders

Cortex and CBL
MBC # Age Race Sex Diagnosis PMI Cause of death Additional clinical information
585 42 AA M SCZ 16 Pulmonary embolism Tox (at death): doxepin
612 45 W M SCZ 24 Suicide, doxepin intoxication N/A
628 59 W M SCZ 13 Pulmonary thromboembolia Tox (at death): ETOH, diphenhydramine
664 53 W M SCZ 11 ASCVD Tox (at death): olanzapine
705 47 W M SCZ 16 Deep vein thrombosis N/A
737 55 W M SCZ 12 ASCVD N/A
741 40 W M SCZ 14 Motor vehicle accident Tox (at death): cocaine
751 28 W M SCZ 34 Suicide, GSW to chest Tox (at death): olanzapine
783 53 W M SCZ 19 Manner undetermined N/A
831 53 W M SCZ 14 ASCVD N/A
4334 11 H M ASD 27 Acute hemorrhagic tracheobronchitis History of epilepsy. Brain edema, acute, mild. Otherwise normal brain
4999 20 W M ASD 14 Cardiac arrythmia PDD, autism, and severe mental retardation. Naltrexone
5027 37 AA M ASD 26 Obstruction of bowel due to adhesion Risperdal and Luvox
5115 46 W M ASD 29 Complications of pseudomyxoma peritonei Adult brain with moderate atherosclerosis
5144 7 W M ASD 3 Cancer, complication of Rhabdomyosarcoma
5176 22 AA M ASD 18 Subdural hemorrhage Risperdal
5308 4 W M ASD 21 Skull fractures Struck by a car. Multifocal subarachnoid hemorrhage
5403 16 W M ASD 35 Cardiac arrhythmia Developmental delays. GI evaluations
1464 42 W M Control 19 Pulmonary embolism Chest and abdominal pain, pale, and diaphoretic
1829 25 W M Control 21 Electrocution N/A
1831 44 W M Control 17 CO2 inhalation complicating ASCVD History of hypertension. Complained of headaches
1936 46 W M Control 13 ASCVD History of HBP. Had been experiencing chest pain
5024 56 W M Control 10 ASCVD; diabetes mellitus Smoker, no drinking of ETOH. History of prescription drug abuse. On insulin, metformin, oxycodone, Levaquin, and Lyrica
5185 21 W M Control 26 Car accident Drink ETOH prior to death
5189 40 W M Control 14 Cardiac arrhythmia complicated by drowning Severe stomach pains, chest palpitations, and nausea
5276 22 W M Control 18 Heroin intoxication Asthma and drug abuse; smoker
5237 52 W M Control 13 HASCVD ETOH and cocaine abuse. Clean for 30 days and not feeling well
5349 24 W M Control 16 Combined drug intoxication Drug use
5553 54 W M Control 17 Hypertensive atherosclerosis heart disease History of HTN and daily ETOH intake
5615 50 W M Control 19 N/A N/A
4337 8 AA M Control 16 Blunt force neck injury. Car accident Asthma. Brain petechiae, fresh
4670 4 W M Control 17 Commotio cordis (struck by a ball in the sternum) N/A
5334 12 H M Control 15 Hanging/suicide N/A
Duodenum (biopsies)
Study # Age Race Sex Diagnosis GI symptoms Additional clinical information
GBA #2 8 W M ASD Non-apparent Food allergies, GFCF diet, probiotics
GBA #3 11 W M ASD GERD, vomiting, bloating Asperger’s. No milk diet
GBA #6 19 W M ASD Regurgitation after each meal, constipation History of aggressive behaviors
GBA #7 21 W F ASD GERD, erosive esophagitis, IBS, severe constipation, occasional diarrhea GFCF diet
GBA #10 9 W M ASD EoE, GERD, constipation, vomiting Asthma, somewhat loose stools. Dairy-free diet
GBA #12 6 AA M ASD Non-apparent Eats only pureed food
GBA #13 5 AA M ASD Severe constipation, GERD, abdominal pain, runny stools Asthma, food allergies
GBA #14 3 W M ASD Chronic constipation History of obesity, restricted diet (yogurt, milk, juice)
GBA #15 11 W F ASD GERD, constipation Macrocephaly, sleep disorder
GBA #16 6 W M ASD Gastroesophageal reflux, constipation Food and seasonal allergies, asthma
GBA #18 16 W F ASD Constipation, abdominal pain, heartburn, regurgitation Acute mono, weight loss
GBA #20 6 AA F ASD GERD with esophagitis, constipation ADHD, asthma. Vegetarian
GBA #5 10 HL M HC Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, sometimes diarrhea Lactose-free diet
GBA #8 16 W F HC Constipation, abdominal pain, burping, bloating GFCG diet, some FODMAP diet
GBA #9 16 W F HC Dysphagia, abdominal pain, regurgitation  
GBA #11 15 W F HC Abdominal pain, GERD Seasonal allergies, lactose intolerance, dairy-free and nut-free diet, ADHD, obesity
GBA #17 21 W F HC Nausea, vomiting, upset stomach, GERD. Abdominal pain Previous duodenitis and gastritis, hepatic adenoma
GBA #19 6.5 N/A M HC GERD, constipation Hydronephrosis, nephrocalcinosis, clubfoot, seasonal allergies, asthma
GBA #21 15 W M HC Dysphagia, esophagitis Asthma
GBA #23 15 W M HC Abdominal pain, IBS-like constipation N/A
GBA #24 4 W M HC Reflux History of constipation. Dairy-free diet
  1. W white, AA African-American, HL Hispanic-Latino, M male, F female, HC healthy control, ASD autism spectrum disorder, GBA gut–brain axis study; GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease, GFCF gluten-free casein-free, PMI postmortem interval, ADD/ADHD attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ASCVD atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, HASCVD hypertensive arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease, PDD/PDD-NOS pervasive developmental disorder/not otherwise specified, OCD obsessive-compulsive disorder