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Table 2 Microbiota composition in cecal and fecal samples from B6 and BTBR mice following chow or ketogenic feeding

From: Ketogenic diet modifies the gut microbiota in a murine model of autism spectrum disorder

   B6 BTBR
   Chow Ketogenic Chow Ketogenic
Cecal microbes (×1000) Akkermansia muciniphila 1.1 ± 0.1a 0.3 ± 0.04b 1011 ± 153c 0.2 ± 0.02b
Bacteroides/Prevotella spp. 7028 ± 611ab 5044 ± 1114a 9233 ± 1211b 709 ± 317c
Bifidobacterium spp. 6132 ± 1071a 17.6 ± 4.8b 381 ± 95c 5.6 ± 0.9d
Clostridium cluster I 24.6 ± 2.2a 9.3 ± 1.7b 13.9 ± 1.7c 6.2 ± 0.7b
Clostridium cluster XI 1.4 ± 0.1a 3.7 ± 0.8b 1.0 ± 0.09c 2.7 ± 0.3b
Clostridium coccoides 53,223 ± 4428a 17,128 ± 4253b 46,568 ± 3885a 11,157 ± 2451b
Clostridium leptum 4959 ± 811ab 2668 ± 690ac 6150 ± 612b 1570 ± 281c
Enterobacteriaceae 257 ± 42a 70 ± 12b 77 ± 7.9b 36 ± 4.7c
Total Firmicutes 61,819 ± 4641a 19,874 ± 4290b 57,015 ± 4086a 12,795 ± 2602b
Lactobacillus spp. 3609 ± 1078a 65 ± 31b 4279 ± 790a 59 ± 36b
Methanobrevibacter spp. 2.6 ± 0.5a 3.4 ± 0.2b 10 ± 0.9c 2.9 ± 0.4ab
Roseburia spp. 2.4 ± 0.3a 0.7 ± 0.08b 3.3 ± 0.3a 0.5 ± 0.1b
Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio 9.4 ± 1.0a 4.6 ± 1.2a 6.9 ± 0.7a 32.5 ± 5.8b
Fecal microbes (×1000) Akkermansia muciniphila 0.2 ± 0.02ab 0.3 ± 0.06ac 1392 ± 223d 0.2 ± 0.03bc
Bacteroides/Prevotella spp. 11,734 ± 1128a 31,189 ± 6810b 22,562 ± 3294b 3654 ± 903c
Bifidobacterium spp. 10,414 ± 999a 120 ± 27b 951 ± 229c 22.6 ± 5.2d
Clostridium cluster I 5.6 ± 0.4a 12.7 ± 2.0bc 18.0 ± 2.7bd 15.3 ± 2.4cd
Clostridium cluster XI 11.6 ± 1.1ab 8.2 ± 1.4ac 4.4 ± 1.3d 10.6 ± 1.5bc
Clostridium coccoides 26,467 ± 4814a 20,859 ± 3938a 36,587 ± 4428a 37,019 ± 7867a
Clostridium leptum 2879 ± 613ab 3015 ± 594a 3956 ± 364bc 7245 ± 1508c
Enterobacteriaceae 253 ± 25ab 633 ± 161ac 116 ± 9.5d 419 ± 112bc
Total Firmicutes 37,399 ± 5318a 24,121 ± 3998b 49,118 ± 4672a 44,782 ± 7907a
Lactobacillus spp. 8031 ± 1573a 225 ± 80b 8548 ± 1535a 492 ± 134b
Methanobrevibacter spp. 9.0 ± 0.7a 0.7 ± 0.1b 5.7 ± 1.9c 0.8 ± 0.1b
Roseburia spp. 5.3 ± 0.6a 1.3 ± 0.2b 5.3 ± 0.9a 0.9 ± 0.1b
Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio 3.5 ± 0.7a 1.2 ± 0.3a 2.4 ± 0.2a 13 ± 1.8b
  1. Total Firmicutes (Clostridium coccoides, Clostridium leptum, Clostridium clusters XI and I, Roseburia spp., and Lactobacillus spp.) and Bacteroidetes (Bacteroides/Prevotella spp.). Data are mean 16S rRNA gene copies/mg cecal or fecal matter ± SEM (n = 11, 10, 15, and 10 respectively). p < 0.05 if values do not share a superscript letter