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Table 4 Means, standard deviations, and differences in change scores between NAC and Placebo groups

From: A randomized placebo-controlled pilot study of N-acetylcysteine in youth with autism spectrum disorder

  NAC Placebo    
  Baseline 12 Weeks Baseline 12 Weeks   Group with largest changeb Cohen’s d
  M SD M SD M SD M SD z testa
ABC
Hyperactivity 20.6 12.4 17.4 16.4 22.6 10.5 15.1 10.8 1.04 PLB 0.34
Speech 3.9 2.8 4.1 3.9 5.7 2.9 5.14 3.5 0.66 PLB 0.24
Irritability 17.0 11.8 14.9 14.0 18.3 9.2 12.0 7.3 1.09 PLB 0.40
Lethargy 13.8 8.1 10.0 7.1 14.0 10.5 7.9 4.7 1.15 PLB 0.31
Stereotypy 4.8 3.3 3.9 5.1 7.0 4.9 5.8 4.0 0.56 PLB 0.09
SRS
Total score 108.5 20.7 85.8 34.9 109.1 16.5 89.1 26.3 0.32 NAC 0.11
VABS-II
Comm 85.9 32.1 88.5 32.5 89.4 32.2 95.0 30.3 0.85 PLB 0.09
Daily Liv. Sk. 93.1 33.7 99.0 37.1 87.6 28.1 98.6 33.4 0.17 PLB 0.16
Socialization 66.8 18.8 71.7 18.7 68.3 20.7 75.9 21.0 0.87 PLB 0.14
Composite 61.3 19.4 62.9 17.1 53.6 15.1 60.5 18.8 1.08 PLB 0.30
Levels in whole blood (uM)
GSH 484.8 212.7 780.3 220.6 474.5 191.6 640.4 190.9 1.74* NAC 0.64
GSSG 12.0 2.5 16.7 10.5 12.8 5.0 12.5 4.4 1.37+ NAC 0.88
GSH/GSSG 43.4 25.6 53.5 16.8 45.2 31.8 59.6 27.0 0.34 PLB 0.17
Homocysteine 4.3 6.1 9.9 13.7 1.9 1.2 5.6 6.8 0.41 NAC 0.27
DNA damage
DNA strand breakage 0.7 0.1 0.7 0.3 0.6 0.2 0.6 0.1 0.38 EVEN 0.00
Oxidative DNA damage 0.9 0.2 1.2 0.4 1.1 0.5 1.2 0.6 0.95 NAC 0.45
  1. aOne-tailed significance + p < .10; *p < .05. Z test of the effect of between level variable of group on the within-level variable of time testing if the change from baseline to week 12 is different between groups. No one-tailed p values for these z tests reached significance at .05 and ranged from .13 to .50
  2. bIdentifies which group had the largest change from baseline to week 12
  3. NAC N-acetylcysteine, M mean, SD standard deviation, ABC Aberrant Behavior Checklist, PLB placebo, SRS social responsiveness scale, VABS-II Vineland adaptive behavior scale 2nd edition, Comm communication, Liv. Sk. living skills, GSH glutathione, GSSG oxidative glutathione disulfide