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Table 4 Percent endorsed ADI-R DSM-5 diagnostic item abnormality (non-zero scores) by diagnosis

From: Parent-reported and clinician-observed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): implications for practice under DSM-5

  ADHD ASD
  Past (current) Past (current)
A1. Socio-emotional reciprocity
 Social chat (item 34) 71 (61) 79 (67)
 Conversation (item 35)** 69 (70) 90 (88)
 Use of other’s body to communicate (item 31)^^ 15 (13) 24 (7)
 Showing and directing attention (item 52) 35 (24) 57 (36)
 Seeking to share enjoyment (item 54) 33 (25) 55 (31)
 Offering comfort (item 55) 49 (47) 69 (55)
 Social smiling (item 51) 58 (51) 73 (66)
A2. Non-verbal communicative behaviors
 Pointing (item 42) 52 (50) 67 (56)
 Nodding (item 43) 41 (44)a 45 (32)
 Shaking (item 44) 30 (40) 40 (32)
 Conventional/instrumental gestures (item 45) 51 (44) 75 (63)
 Range of facial expressions (item 57) 60 (53) 66 (60)
 Quality of social overture (item 56) 52 (49) 65 (49)
A3. Developing and maintaining relationships
 Inappropriate questions (item 36) 67 (69)a 67 (65)
 Inappropriate facial expressions (item 58) 54 (56)a 57 (54)
 Offering to share (item 53) 72 (64) 74 (63)
 Appropriateness of social responses (item 59) 61 (64)a 79 (73)
 Social disinhibition (item 66) 84 (82) 83 (80)
 Friendships (item 65)b 64 (73) 82 (79)
B1. Stereotyped/repetitive speech, motor movements, or use of objects
 Stereotyped language (item 33)*** 52 (47) 72 (68)
 Pronoun reversal (item 37) 28 (11) 38 (14)
 Neologisms/idiosyncratic language (item 38) 26 (24) 34 (21)
 Repetitive use of objects (item 69) 61 (47) 65 (46)
 Hand/finger mannerisms (item 77) 20 (18) 40 (34)
 Other complex mannerisms (item 78) 28 (22) 50 (43)
B2. Excessive adherence to routines, ritualized patterns, or resistance to change.
 Verbal rituals (item 39) 33 (33) 38 (33)
 Compulsions/rituals (item 70) 48 (42) 54 (49)
 Difficulties with minor changes in routines/environment (item 74) 66 (66) 69 (61)
 Resistance to trivial changes in the environment (item 75) 24 (22) 19 (16)
B3. Highly restricted, fixated interests.
 Unusual preoccupations (item 67) 26 (22) 38 (29)
 Circumscribed interests (item 68) 67 (66) 76 (71)
 Unusual attachment to objects (item 76) 24 (16) 29 (15)
B4. Hyper-/hypo-reactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory environment
 Undue general sensitivity to noise (item 72) 50 (48) 69 (63)
 Abnormal, idiosyncratic, negative response to specific sensory stimuli (item 73) 53 (55) 63 (61)
 Unusual sensory interests (item 71) 61 (64)b 63 (57)
  1. Based on Huerta, Bishop, Duncan, Hus, and Lord, 2012 item classification for DSM-5
  2. aTwo parents of ADHD children and eight parents of ASD children were not administered the ADI-R and one additional child with ADHD was not administered current items; therefore, these individuals were not included in analyses and percentages; higher percentage of current versus past explained by missing current data
  3. bFriendships (item 65) was not originally mapped to DSM-5 criteria by Huerta, Bishop, Duncan, Hus, and Lord, 2012 but was added here due to its applicability to the symptoms area; in addition, past percentages refer to “most abnormal” abnormal ages 10–15 years and current percentages refer to individuals ≥5 years old
  4. **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 (indicates statistically significant difference between groups in ADI-R past endorsed items); ^^p < 0.01, ^^^p < 0.001 (indicates statistically significant difference between groups in ADI-R current endorsed items)