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Table 2 Significant differences in relative regional gray matter volume between participants with ASD and TDC participants, after controlling for full-scale IQ

From: Regional brain volume differences between males with and without autism spectrum disorder are highly age-dependent

Region BA Hemisphere MNI coordinates T value Cluster-level P value a Cluster size (voxels)
    x y z
Model 1: ASD > TDC
  Thalamus cluster Medial dorsal nucleus of thalamus   L −1 −12 19 4.71 0.014 563
  Medial dorsal nucleus of thalamus    0 −6 9 4.09   
  Lateral dorsal nucleus of thalamus   R 11 −21 15 3.71   
  Right orbital frontal cluster Inferior frontal gyrus 47 R 3 8 −24 4.68 0.002 761
    R 27 15 −23 4.37   
    R 30 27 −27 4.17   
Model 1: ASD < TDC
  Temporo-parieto-occipital junction cluster Angular/middle occipital gyrus 39 L −40 −75 30 3.81 0.058b 430
  Precuneus/middle occipital gyrus 19 L −27 −84 40 3.75   
  Precuneus/middle occipital gyrus 19 L −36 −75 42 3.51   
Model 2: ASD > TDC
  Thalamus cluster Medial dorsal nucleus of thalamus   L −1 −12 19 4.79 0.003 697
  Lateral dorsal nucleus of thalamus R 11 −21 15 3.93   
    0 3 18 3.43   
  Right inferior orbital frontal cluster Inferior frontal gyrus 47 R 3 8 −24 4.63 0.009 605
  Inferior frontal gyrus 47 R 27 15 −23 4.35   
  Inferior frontal gyrus 47 R 30 27 −27 4.10   
Model 2: ASD by age > TDC by age
  Cuneus cluster Cuneus 18   0 −90 16 5.51 <0.001 2,813
  Cuneus 19 R 26 −85 34 4.34   
  Cuneus 17 R 2 −82 12 4.31   
  Anterior prefrontal cluster Medial frontal gyrus 10 L −6 71 −3 5.45 <0.001 4,277
  Superior frontal gyrus 10 L −19 71 −3 5.27   
  Middle frontal gyrus 10 L −30 51 −9 4.92   
Model 2: ASD by age < TDC by age          
  Left cerebellum cluster Crus I L −51 −58 −30 4.52 <0.001 1,666
  Crus I L −46 −48 −32 4.39   
  Crus I L −42 −42 −33 4.11   
  Right caudate cluster Caudate R 18 3 16 4.01 0.050b 443
  Caudate R 18 3 16 3.73   
  Caudate R 12 −3 22 3.72   
  Left caudate cluster Caudate L −18 −1 24 3.57 0.042 457
  Caudate L −18 11 15 3.45   
  Caudate L −15 21 15 3.19   
Model 3: Child, ASD > TDC          
  Limbic cluster Subcallosal gyrus 34 L −12 5 −15 3.91 0.002 732
  Sub-lobar R 5 5 −12 3.90   
  Sub-lobar L −7 2 −8 3.80   
Model 3: Child, ASD < TDC          
  Right postcentral cluster Postcentral gyrus 3 R 41 −34 63 4.29 0.028 495
  Postcentral gyrus 3 R 35 −25 69 4.20   
  Postcentral gyrus 3 R 30 −34 64 4.06   
  Left parieto-occipital junction cluster Precuneus 19 L −27 −82 39 4.19 0.016 546
  Precuneus 19 L −34 −82 34 4.01   
  Middle occipital gyrus 19 L −32 −91 24 3.43   
Model 3: Adult, ASD > TDC          
  Right dorsal medial prefrontal cluster Superior frontal gyrus 9 R 12 56 34 5.40 <0.001 1,192
  Superior frontal gyrus 10 R 8 51 42 4.89   
  Superior frontal gyrus 10 R 5 66 9 4.83   
  Left anterior/dorsal medial prefrontal cluster Superior frontal gyrus 10 L −7 56 1 4.75 0.005 561
  Superior frontal gyrus 10 L −7 72 −3 4.74   
  Medial frontal gyrus 10 L −10 71 6 4.24   
  Left lateral prefrontal cluster Middle frontal gyrus 10 L −39 51 −17 4.91 0.018 465
  Superior frontal gyrus 10 L −33 59 −3 4.37   
  Superior frontal gyrus 10 L −31 51 −8 3.82   
  Cuneus cluster Cuneus 18 R 2 −84 22 4.25 0.022 447
  Cuneus 18 0 −76 32 4.17   
  Cuneus 18 R 8 −91 14 4.11   
  1. ASD, autism spectrum disorder; TDC, typically developing control; BA, Brodmann area; L, left; R, right; ellipses, not applicable; MNI, Montreal Neurological Institute. aStatistical threshold was all set at FWE-corrected cluster-level P < 0.05, with cluster-forming voxel-level P < 0.005. bTrend-level significant.