ASD-like symptoms were improved by antipurinergic therapy. (A) Social preference measured as percent time. Fmr1 knockouts treated with saline showed significant deficits in social preference compared to wild-type controls (F(3,38) = 5.94, P = 0.002) and suramin corrected this (P <0.05). (B) Social novelty measured as percent time. Fmr1 knockouts treated with saline also showed significant deficits in social novelty. (F(3,38) = 3.49, P = 0.025) and suramin restored this (P <0.05). (C) Social preference as absolute time spent interacting socially. Fmr1 knockouts were less social than wild-type controls and suramin treatment corrected this (cup F(1,76) = 56.5, P = 0.0001; cup x group F(3,76) = 3.55, P = 0.018). (D) Social novelty as absolute time interacting with a novel mouse. Fmr1 knockouts showed decreased novelty preference and suramin improved this (social stimulus main effect F(1,76) = 8.6; P = 0.004); social stimulus x group F(3,76) = 3.1, P = 0.032. Age 17 weeks; N = 9-12 per group for Social Preference/Social Novelty test. (E) Restoration of spontaneous alternation in the T-maze. Suramin improved spontaneous alternation in the Fmr1 knockouts, but had not effect on FVB controls (F(3,41) = 16.6; P <0.0001). Age 13 weeks; N = 11-12 per group. (F) Restoration of normal marble burying. Fmr1 knockouts treated with saline buried fewer marbles compared to controls (F(3,37) = 3.15; P = 0.037) and suramin corrected this (P <0.05). Age 16 weeks; N = 9-12 per group. (G) Relative hypothermia in the Fragile X model and correction with suramin. Fmr1 knockout animals treated with saline had core temperatures that were 0.5-0.7°C lower than wild-type FVB controls (F(3,41) = 10.45, P <0.0001). Suramin restored normal body temperature in Fmr1 knockouts (P = 0.001). Age 15 weeks, N = 11-12 per group. Values are expressed as means +/- SEM.