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Table 3 Association between genetic factors for neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs) and five SNPs

From: Association study between autistic-like traits and polymorphisms in the autism candidate regions RELN, CNTNAP2, SHANK3, and CDH9/10

    General NDPa Impulsivitya Learning problemsa Tics and autisma
Gene/SNP MAF Genotype N A ll N B oys N G irls A ll B oys G irls A ll B oys G irls A ll B oys G irls
CDH9/10                
rs4307059 0.37(C) C/C 1,149 0.128 (0.70) 538 0.235 (0.72) 611 0.034 (0.66) 0.032 (0.53) 0.034 (0.53) 0.030 (0.52) 0.002 (0.59) 0.017 (0.62) -0.010 (0.57) 0.067 (0.51) 0.144 (0.51) -0.002 (0.49)
   T/C 3,923 0.172 (0.71) 1,998 0.275 (0.73) 1,925 0.064 (0.68) 0.028 (0.54) 0.021 (0.55) 0.034 (0.53) 0.051 (0.62) 0.085 (0.65) 0.016 (0.58) 0.069 (0.55) 0.138 (0.58) -0.003 (0.50)
   T/T 3,424 0.132 (0.69) 1,711 0.244 (0.71) 1,713 0.019 (0.66) 0.023 (0.54) 0.038 (0.55) 0.009 (0.52) 0.031 (0.62) 0.066 (0.65) -0.004 (0.59) 0.057 (0.50) 0.105 (0.53) 0.009 (0.47)
P valueb     0.962   0.661   0.811 0.554 0.571 0.959 0.401 0.474 0.702 0.734 0.702 0.695
Effect size (CI 95%)c   0.001 (-0.021, 0.022)   0.007 (-0.024, 0.037)   -0.004 (-0.034, 0.027) 0.005 (-0.011, 0.021) 0.006 (-0.016, 0.029) 0.001 (-0.024, 0.025) -0.007 (-0.023, 0.009) -0.008 (-0.028, 0.013) -0.005 (-0.033, 0.022) 0.002 (-0.012, 0.017) 0.004 (-0.017, 0.025) 0.004 (-0.018, 0.026)
CNTNAP2                  
rs2710102 0.48(G) A/A 2,316 0.121 (0.70) 1,153 0.203 (0.72) 1,163 0.040 (0.68) 0.004 (0.53) 0.002 (0.54) 0.007 (0.51) 0.050 (0.61) 0.056 (0.62) 0.043 (0.60) 0.057 (0.53) 0.126 (0.56) -0.012 (0.49)
   A/G 4,242 0.158 (0.70) 2,126 0.274 (0.72) 2,116 0.041 (0.65) 0.030 (0.54) 0.037 (0.56) 0.023 (0.53) 0.033 (0.63) 0.075 (0.67) -0.010 (0.58) 0.069 (0.52) 0.125 (0.55) 0.013 (0.49)
   G/G 1,924 0.164 (0.70) 966 0.268 (0.71) 958 0.059 (0.68) 0.040 (0.54) 0.036 (0.55) 0.043 (0.53) 0.027 (0.60) 0.063 (0.63) -0.008 (0.57) 0.066 (0.53) 0.130 (0.56) 0.001 (0.49)
P valueb     0.501   0.135   0.634 0.344 0.315 0.767 0.450 0.692 0.167 0.768 0.856 0.746
Effect size (CI 95%)c   0.007 (-0.014, 0.029)   0.025 (-0.008, 0.057)   -0.006 (-0.032, 0.019) 0.008 (-0.009, 0.025) 0.013 (-0.013, 0.039) 0.003 (-0.018, 0.025) -0.007 (-0.025, 0.011) 0.006 (-0.024, 0.037) -0.015 (-0.037, 0.006) 0.002 (-0.013, 0.018) -0.002 (-0.027, 0.022) 0.002 (-0.008, 0.012)
rs7794745 0.36(T) A/A 3,499 0.144 (0.70) 1,714 0.251 (0.72) 1,785 0.041 (0.67) 0.023 (0.53) 0.028 (0.54) 0.019 (0.53) 0.022 (0.61) 0.048 (0.63) -0.004 (0.58) 0.075 (0.53) 0.140 (0.55) 0.013 (0.49)
   T/A 3,947 0.156 (0.70) 2,010 0.269 (0.71) 1,937 0.039 (0.67) 0.028 (0.54) 0.035 (0.56) 0.021 (0.53) 0.046 (0.62) 0.082 (0.66) 0.009 (0.58) 0.058 (0.53) 0.116 (0.56) -0.001 (0.49)
   T/T 1,110 0.146 (0.70) 556 0.225 (0.73) 554 0.068 (0.65) 0.031 (0.53) 0.020 (0.56) 0.042 (0.51) 0.042 (0.63) 0.067 (0.63) 0.017 (0.62) 0.050 (0.51) 0.111 (0.53) -0.012 (0.48)
P valueb     0.583   0.169   0.583 0.590 0.563 0.905 0.811 0.547 0.296 0.112 0.210 0.567
Effect size (CI 95%)c   -0.006 (-0.028, 0.016)   -0.023 (-0.055, 0.010)   0.007 (-0.019, 0.034) 0.005 (-0.012, 0.021) 0.007 (-0.017, 0.031) 0.001 (-0.021, 0.023) 0.002 (-0.014, 0.018) -0.008 (-0.032, 0.017) 0.012 (-0.01, 0.034) -0.012 (-0.026, 0.003) -0.015 (-0.038, 0.008) -0.003 (-0.013, 0.007)
RELN                  
rs362691 0.13(C) C/C 156 0.097 (0.68) 80 0.149 (0.69) 76 0.043 (0.66) -0.065 (0.52) -0.111 (0.45) -0.017 (0.58) 0.097 (0.68) 0.094 (0.56) 0.100 (0.78) 0.087 (0.51) 0.194 (0.53) -0.025 (0.46)
   C/G 1,823 0.126 (0.69) 874 0.270 (0.69) 949 -0.007 (0.65) 0.019 (0.55) 0.055 (0.57) -0.015 (0.53) 0.025 (0.63) 0.055 (0.66) -0.002 (0.60) 0.063 (0.54) 0.114 (0.58) 0.016 (0.49)
   G/G 6,483 0.156 (0.70) 3,270 0.253 (0.72) 3,213 0.058 (0.67) 0.029 (0.53) 0.023 (0.55) 0.036 (0.52) 0.039 (0.61) 0.071 (0.65) 0.006 (0.57) 0.063 (0.52) 0.128 (0.55) -0.002 (0.49)
P valueb     0.545   0.879   0.288 0.444 0.856 0.115 0.957 0.802 0.521 0.632 0.715 0.646
Effect size (95% CI)c   -0.010 (-0.041, 0.022)   0.003 (-0.04, 0.047)   -0.026 (-0.073, 0.022) -0.009 (-0.033, 0.014) 0.003 (-0.029, 0.035) -0.030 (-0.067, 0.007) 0.001 (-0.023, 0.024) -0.004 (-0.033, 0.026) 0.014 (-0.029, 0.056) 0.005 (-0.016, 0.026) 0.006 (-0.025, 0.036) 0.008 (-0.026, 0.042)
SHANK3                  
rs9616915 0.49(T) C/C 2,170 0.149 (0.71) 1,123 0.263 (0.73) 1,047 0.028 (0.65) 0.039 (0.54) 0.041 (0.56) 0.037 (0.52) 0.020 (0.60) 0.039 (0.62) 0.001 (0.58) 0.060 (0.54) 0.140 (0.55) -0.025 (0.51)
   C/T 4,182 0.161 (0.70) 2,044 0.266 (0.72) 2,138 0.060 (0.66) 0.037 (0.54) 0.053 (0.55) 0.022 (0.53) 0.039 (0.61) 0.075 (0.64) 0.004 (0.58) 0.057 (0.52) 0.096 (0.54) 0.020 (0.49)
   T/T 2,061 0.120 (0.69) 1,048 0.232 (0.70) 1,013 0.005 (0.66) -0.010 (0.52) -0.030 (0.54) 0.011 (0.50) 0.042 (0.63) 0.083 (0.68) -0.001 (0.57) 0.081 (0.53) 0.169 (0.58) -0.009 (0.46)
P valueb     0.703   0.870   0.716 0.152 0.068 1.00 0.377 0.308 0.994 0.273 0.266 0.659
Effect size (CI 95%)c   0.004 (-0.017, 0.025)   0.002 (-0.027, .032)   0.006 (-0.025, 0.037) -0.012 (-0.028, 0.004) -0.020 (-0.042, 0.001) 0.001 (-0.025, 0.025) 0.007 (-0.009, 0.023) 0.011 (-0.01, 0.031) 0.001 (-0.028, 0.028) 0.008 (-0.006, 0.022) 0.012 (-0.009, 0.032) 0.005 (-0.017, 0.028)
  1. aMean values (SD).
  2. bUncorrected P value.
  3. cEffect size presented as the regression coefficient (95% CI).
  4. A-TAC: Autism-Tics, ADHD, and Other Co-morbidities inventory.