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Table 1 Summary of prevalence studies of autism spectrum conditions in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan (25 studies)

From: Prevalence of autism in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Year First author Region Sample size Area Age (years) Sample screened Screen methods Screen tools Cut-off Response rate (%) P/R Diagnostic tools Diagnostic criteria Childhood autism ASC prevalence/SE (per 10,000)
               prevalence/SE (per 10,000)  
1987 Tao [37] Mainland 457,200 Urban 3 to 8 C R - - - R - Rutter 0.32 (0.08) -
2000 Luo [38] Mainland 10,802 Mixed 2 to 14 SG QI ABC 31 100 P - CCMD-2-R, DSM-III-R 2.8 (1.60) -
2002 Wang [39] Mainland 3.978 Urban 2 to 6 K QI CABS 7 98.3 P CARS CCMD-2-R 17.9 (6.70) -
2002 Ren [40] Mainland 3,559 Urban 3 to 5 SG QI CABS 14 99.1 P - - 250 (2.31) -
2003 Wang [41] Mainland 7,488 Mixed 2 to 6 SG QI CABS 7 98.08 P CARS CCMD-2-R 12.3 (4.05) -
2003 Chang [42] Taiwan 660 Mixed 15 to 93 C C ASDASQ 5 100 P - DSM-IV - 60.0 (30.06)
2004 Guo [43] Mainland 5,000 Urban 0 to 6 WP QI CABS 7 99.1 P CARS CCMD-2-R 10 (4.47) -
2004 Guo [44] Mainland 3,776 Rural 2 to 6 SG QI CABS 7 100 P CARS DSM-IV 8 (4.59) -
2005 Zhang [45] Mainland 7,416 Urban 2 to 6 SG QI CABS 7 99 P CARS DSM-IV 11.0 (3.85) -
2005 Zhang [46] Mainland 1,305 Urban 3 to 7 K QI CABS 14 100 P - - 19.9 (2.47) -
2005 Liu [47] Mainland 21,866 Mixed 2 to 6 SG QI CABS 7 100 P CARS DSM-IV 13.4 (2.47) 15.3 (2.64)
2007 Yang [48] Mainland 10,412 Urban 3 to 12 PS QI ABC 31 100 P - DSM-IV 5.6 (2.32) -
2007 Wong [49] Hong Kong 4,247,206 Mixed 0 to 14 HS R - - - R CARS, ADI-R DSM-IV - 16.1 (0.19)
2008 Zhang [36] Mainland 8,681 Urban 2 to 3 SG QI CHAT - 100 P CARS DSM-IV 16.1 (4.3) -
2008 Zhang [36] Mainland 12,430 Urban 4 to 6 SG QI CABS 14 100 P CARS DSM-IV 8.85 (2.7) -
2009 Zhang [50] Mainland 5,000 Urban 0 to 6 SG QI CABS 7 99.98 P CARS CCMD-2-R 10.0 (4.47) -
2009 Wang [51] Mainland 4,156 Urban 2 to 6 K QI CABS 14 100 P - - 19.5 (6.84) -
2010 Li [52] Mainland 8,006 Mixed 1.5 to 3 SG QI CHAT - 92.99 P CARS DSM-IV 26.2 (5.71) -
2010 Wu [53] Mainland 8,532 Urban 0 to 3 SG QI CHAT - 100 P CARS DSM-IV 8.2 (3.10) -
2010 Yu [54] Mainland 7,059 Mixed 2 to 6 SG Q CABS 7 89.7 P - DSM-IV 21.2 (5.47) 22.7 (5.66)
2010 Chen [55] Mainland 7,034 Mixed 2 to 6 SG Q CABS 7 98.78 P CARS DSM-IV 14.2 (4.49) 24.2 (5.86)
2011 Wang [56] Mainland 7,500 Urban 2 to 6 K QI CABS 14 87.8 P - DSM-IV 29.5 (6.26) 75.4 (9.99)
2011 Liang [57] Mainland 2,485 Urban 3 to 6 K QI CABS 14 100 P - DSM-IV, ICD-10 14.1 (7.53) -
2011 Li [58] Mainland 616,940 Mixed 0 to 17 SG QI ABC - - P - ICD-10 2.38 (0.20) -
2011 Chien [59] Taiwan 372,642 Mixed 0 to 17 HS R - - - R - ICD-9 - 28.7 (0.88)
  1. Sample screened: C, clinical patients; HS, population in health system; K, kindergartens; PS, primary schools; SG, stratified general population; WP, whole population. Screen methods: C, clinical referral; Q, questionnaire distribution; QI, questionnaire-based interview; R, records. Screen tools: ABC, Autism Behavior Checklist; ASDASQ, Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults Screening Questionnaire; CABS, Clancy Autism Behavior Scale; CARS, Childhood Autism Rating Scale; CHAT, Checklist for Autism in Toddlers. P, Perspective; R, Retrospective. Diagnostic criteria: ADI-R, Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised; CCMD-2-R,Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders, 2nd edition, revised; DSM-III-R, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition, revised; DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition; ICD-9, International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision; ICD-10, International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision.ASC, autism spectrum conditions; SE,: Standard error; -, data not available.