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Table 3 Clinical and behavioral characteristics of autism spectrum disorder facial subgroups

From: Facial phenotypes in subgroups of prepubertal boys with autism spectrum disorders are correlated with clinical phenotypes

Characteristics Subgroup 1 n= 12 (18.8%) P value Subgroup 2 n= 5 (7.8%) P value Remainder n= 47 (73.4%)
Diagnosis
   Autistic disorder ↑75% ns ↓20% ns 62%
   Asperger syndrome ↓8% 0.05* ↑60% 0.05* 32%
   PDD-NOS 17% ns 20% ns 6%
Autism course
   Regression ↑58% 0.03* ↓20% ns 25%
Autism severity
   SCQ lifetime, mean (SD) ↑25.3 (3.2) 0.03*, 0.05** ↓17.7 (9.2) 0.03*** 20.5 (7.6)
   SCQ <15 ↓0% ns ↑50% ns 24%
IQ scores
   FSIQ, mean (SD) 78.4 (26.9) ns 96 (36.2) ns 87.9 (20.5)
   FSIQ, range 36 to 113 ns 38 to 127 ns 31 to 130
   FSIQ <70 50% 0.002** ↓20% ns 15%
   FSIQ ≥70 50% ns 80% ns 85%
   VIQ, mean (SD) 78.4 (26.9) ns 87.4 (39.2) ns 87.5 (24.6)
   VIQ, range 13 to 122 ns 23 to 121 ns 28 to 138
   VIQ <70 42% ns 20% ns 24%
   VIQ ≥70 58% ns 80% ns 76%
   NVIQ, mean (SD) 79.2 (28.6) ns ↑101.6 (31.0) ns 90.3 (18.5)
   NVIQ range 34 to 119 ns 53 to 121 ns 33 to 129
   NVIQ <70 ↑45% 0.02** ↑20% ns 12%
   NVIQ ≥70 55% ns ↑80% ns 88%
Language
   Mean age at first word month (SD) 15 (6.1) ns ↓11.4 (4.3) ns 18.6 (11.0)
   Mean age at first phrase month (SD) 40 (31.5) ns 23.2 (18.2) ns 32.8 (16.5)
Behaviors
   CBCL total problems t-score ≥65 ↓10% 0.01** 25% ns 55%
Physical
   Macrocephaly ↓17% 0.02* ↑80% 0.02*, 0.02** 23%
Medical
   GI problems 33% ns ↑80% ns 36%
Neurological
   Seizures 33% 0.07** 0% ns 11%
   Infant feeding problems 8% 0.01** ↑40% ns 51%
Family history
   SRS mother, mean (SD) ↑43 (21.4) 0.02** 25 (10.7) ns 26.2 (20.4)
  1. CBCL = Child Behavior Checklist; FSIQ = Full Scale IQ; GI = gastrointestinal; IQ = intelligence quotient; ns = not significant; NVIQ = Non-Verbal IQ; PDD-NOS = pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified; SCQ = Social Communication Questionnaire; SRS = Social Responsiveness Scale; VIQ = Verbal IQ. *Subgroups 1 and 2 comparisons. **Comparison of subgroups to the remainder.