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Table 3 Risk associated with a one-unit increase in the natural log-transformed concentration of cytokines and chemokines measured in midpregnancy maternal serum in the Early Markers for Autism studya

From: Increased midgestational IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 in women bearing a child with autism: A case-control study

  ASD mothers vs. GP mothers ASD mothers vs. DD mothers DD mothers vs. GP mothers
Analyte ORadj 95% CI ORadj 95% CI ORadj 95% CI
GM-CSF 1.06 0.88 to 1.28 0.66 0.44 to 1.00 1.28 0.95 to 1.73
IFN-γ 1.52 1.19 to 1.93 1.46 0.94 to 2.26 1.42 0.99 to 2.05
IL-10 1.37 1.00 to 1.87 1.40 0.76 to 2.61 1.65 1.00 to 2.72
IL-12 0.93 0.58 to 1.47 0.39 0.13 to 1.17 0.82 0.42 to 1.62
IL-1β 0.98 0.83 to 1.15 0.84 0.61 to 1.17 1.04 0.81 to 1.32
IL-2 1.22 0.96 to 1.57 1.31 0.77 to 2.21 1.72 1.12 to 2.64
IL-4 1.51 1.12 to 2.03 1.19 0.70 to 2.03 2.18 1.24 to 3.85
IL-5 1.45 1.07 to 1.98 1.70 0.87 to 3.34 1.25 0.72 to 2.18
IL-6 1.10 0.97 to 1.26 0.79 0.62 to 1.02 1.22 1.01 to 1.48
TNF-α 1.07 0.85 to 1.35 0.66 0.42 to 1.04 1.27 0.93 to 1.74
IL-8 0.96 0.80 to 1.15 0.88 0.65 to 1.18 1.17 0.91 to 1.51
Eotaxin 1.18 0.79 to 1.74 0.72 0.38 to 1.37 1.25 0.65 to 2.42
IP-10 1.16 0.74 to 1.81 0.95 0.46 to 1.97 0.70 0.39 to 1.27
MCP-1 1.06 0.75 to 1.50 0.83 0.45 to 1.53 1.15 0.75 to 1.77
MIP-1α 1.11 0.94 to 1.31 0.87 0.61 to 1.23 1.10 0.86 to 1.41
MIP-1β 1.10 0.93 to 1.30 0.79 0.53 to 1.17 1.16 0.89 to 1.52
RANTES 0.92 0.65 to 1.31 0.97 0.44 to 2.14 0.98 0.55 to 1.76
  1. aASD: autism spectrum disorder; GP: general population; DD: developmental delay; ORadj: adjusted odds ratio; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval; GM-CSF: granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor; MIP-1: macrophage inflammatory protein; MCP-1: monocyte chemotactic protein-1; IP-10: IFN-γ-induced protein 10; RANTES: regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted. Results are adjusted for maternal weight and gestational age of the fetus at the time of specimen collection, as well as for maternal age, race, ethnicity and country of origin.