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Table 2 Results of univariate and adjusted unmatched analyses.

From: Paternal age increases the risk for autism in an Iranian population sample

    Univariate analysis Adjusted analysis
Variable Cases Cohort Comparisons p -value Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) p -value Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 1
Fathers' age       
19-24 10 53497 .267 0.679 (0.343-1.344) 0.796 0.912 (0.453-1837)
25-29 47 170796 Ref.    
30-34 57 167541 .282 1.236 (0.840-1.819) 0.832 1.046 (0.690-1.586)
35-39 38 95519 .091 1.446 (0.943-2.217) 0.167 1.435 (0.860-2.395)
=> 40 27 62001 .057 1.583 (0.986-2.541) 0.023 2.026 (1.100-3.728)
Mothers' age       
13-19 7 43320 .189 0.587 (0.265-1.299) 0.442 0.727 (0.324-1.636)
20-24 47 170732 Ref.    
25-29 63 167423 .105 1.367 (0.937-1.994) 0.528 1.143 (0.775-1.731)
30-34 43 108886 .087 1.435 (0.949-2.170) 0.699 1.108 (0.659-1861)
=> 35 19 58993 .564 1.170 (0.687-1.993) 0.636 0.846 (0.422-1.694)
Fathers' education*       
Graduate 64 69656 Ref.    
High school 53 153123 .000 . 323 (.224-. 464) 0.009 0.578 (0.383-0.873)
Primary/middle school 48 288446 .000 .155 (.107- .226) 0.004 0.462 (0.273-0782)
No education 14 48129 .000 .271 (.152- .483) 0.984 0.992 (0.430-2.289)
* Mothers' education       
Graduate 55 40106 Ref.    
High school 57 155404 .000 .267 (.185 - .387) 0 0.438 (0.284-0.674)
Primary/middle school 51 281892 .000 .132 (.090- .193) 0.001 0.390 (0.222-0685)
No education 16 71952 .000 .162 (.093- .283) 0.101 0.488 (0.207-1.152)
Birth order       
First born 99 239361 Ref.    
Second 48 160025 0.068 .725 (.514 - 1.024) 0.05 0.681 (0.464-1.000)
Third & higher 32 149968 0.001 .516 (.346 - .769) 0.016 0.515 (0.300-0.884)
Sex       
Female 36 266124 Ref.    
Male 143 283230 .000 3.732 (2.590-5.379) 0 3.358 (2.607-5.417)
Consanguinity      
not related 121 382301 0.562 1.097 (0.802-1.500) 0.003 1.639 (1.182-2.274)
related 58 167053 Ref.    
Urban/Rural       
Rural 4 115499 .000 .086 (0.032-.0231) 0.001 0.163 (0.059-0.454)
Urban 175 433855 Ref.    
  1. * Graduate indicates college graduate up to and including graduate degrees. High school indicates high school graduate up to associate's degree (2 years college); primary/middle school indicates any education up to but not including high school.
  2. †Consanguinity (scored dichotomously) indicates that the parents are closely related, as either first, second or third cousins.