Phosphorylated fragile X mental retardation protein at serine 499, is reduced in cerebellar vermis and superior frontal cortex of subjects with autism: implications for fragile X mental retardation protein-metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 signaling
© Rustan et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 19 June 2013
Accepted: 18 September 2013
Published: 1 November 2013
Lohith et al. (Mol Autism 4:15, 2013) recently identified increased metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) expression in the frontal cortex (FC) of subjects with fragile X syndrome. These results are consistent with postmortem findings in cerebellar vermis and FC of subjects with autism (Fatemi and Folsom, Mol Autism 2:6, 2011; Fatemi et al. Anat Rec 294:1635–1645, 2011), suggesting that increased mGluR5 signaling is common to multiple autism spectrum disorders. Increased mGluR5 signaling may be associated with reduced phosphorylation of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which could result in the inactivation of this protein. In the current study, we report on reduced expression of phosphorylated FMRP in cerebellar vermis of adults and children with autism and in FC of adults with autism.
KeywordsmGluR5 FMRP Cerebellar vermis Superior frontal cortex Phosphorylation of FMRP
We have read with great interest the recent article by Lohith et al.  regarding increased expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in the frontal cortex of individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS). The results are consistent with our published work of increased expression of mGluR5 in the superior frontal cortex of children with autism . Moreover, we have also demonstrated increased mGluR5 expression in the cerebellar vermis of children with autism . Taken together, our data and those of Lohith et al.  suggest that increased brain expression of mGluR5 may be a specific marker of autism spectrum disorders. In contrast, we have identified reduced expression of mGluR5 in the brains of subjects with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder .
Increased mGluR5 expression in autism and FXS is associated with reduced or absent expression of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) . We have shown reduced FMRP expression in the cerebellar vermis and superior frontal cortex of individuals with autism [2, 3] and from the lateral cerebellum and superior frontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression [4, 6]. Additionally, levels of several targets of FMRP including ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1), homer 1, striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP), and amyloid beta A4 precursor protein (APP) are also altered significantly in subjects with autism  pointing to involvement of mGluR5-FMRP signaling abnormalities in autism. FMRP has been found to colocalize with stalled, translationally inactive polyribosomes when phosphorylated at serine 499, whereas dephosphorylated FMRP associates with actively translating ribosomes . Thus, phosphorylated FMRP is seen as a translational repressor, while dephosphorylation of FMRP, mediated by mGluR signaling, may lead to derepression of protein translation.
Analysis of covariance
Amyloid beta A4 precursor protein
Brodman area 9
Fragile X mental retardation protein
fragile X syndrome
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5
Neuronal specific enolase
Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1
Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase.
Human tissue was obtained from the NICHD Brain and Tissue Bank for Developmental Disorders, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (the role of the NICHD Brain and Tissue Bank is to distribute tissue, and therefore cannot endorse the studies performed or the interpretation of results); the Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center, which is supported in part by Public Health Service grant number R24 MH068855; the Brain Endowment Bank, which is funded in part by the National Parkinson Foundation, Inc., Miami, Florida; and the Autism Tissue Program, and is gratefully acknowledged. Grant support by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (#5R01HD052074-01A2 and 3R01HD052074-03S1) and the Minnesota Medical Foundation Alfred and Ingrid Lenz Harrison Autism Initiative Fund to SHF is gratefully acknowledged. SHF is also supported by the Bernstein Endowed Chair in Adult Psychiatry. Grant support from an Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) from the University of Minnesota to OGR is gratefully acknowledged. The funding body had no role in the study design, collection, analysis and interpretation of data, in the writing of the manuscript or in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. We appreciate the statistical help provided by Dr P Thuras.
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